Letter | Published:

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Non-irradiated Bone

Naturevolume 199pages13041305 (1963) | Download Citation



THE generation of electrical potentials by bone subjected to mechanical stress has been recently reported by two groups of investigators1,2. Bassett and Becker suggested a semiconduction mechanism as being the source of the phenomenon, while Shamos et al. favoured a classical piezo-electric mechanism similar to that earlier described by Fukada and Yasuda3. The semiconduction theory has recently been reported on in more detail4 and evidence presented for the formation of multiple pn junctions from the apatite crystal (p type) collagen fibre (n type) in the bone matrix. Similar inorganic pn junctions have been shown to be exceedingly stress sensitive5,6.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Bassett, C. A. L., and Becker, R. O., Science, 137, 1063 (1962).

  2. 2

    Shamos, M. H., Lavine, L. S., and Shamos, M. I., Nature, 197, 81 (1963).

  3. 3

    Fukada, E., and Yasuda, I., J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 12, 1158 (1957).

  4. 4

    Becker, R. O., Bassett, C. A. L., and Bachman, C. H., “The Bioelectric Control System Regulating Bone Growth” Proc. Intern. Symp. Biodynamics of Bone (Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich., March 1963) (in the press).

  5. 5

    Rindner, W., and Nelson, R., Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., 50, 2106 (1962).

  6. 6

    Huber, F., App. Phys. Letters, 2, 76 (1963).

  7. 7

    Slager, V. T., and Zucker, M. J., Transplant. Bull., 30, 146 (1962).

  8. 8

    Silver, A. (personal communication).

  9. 9

    Gordy, W., Ard, W. B., and Shields, H., Proc. U.S. Nat. Acad. Sci., 41, 983 (1955).

  10. 10

    Portis, A. M., Kip, A. F., and Kittel, C., Phys. Rev., 90, 988 (1953).

Download references

Author information


  1. State University of New York, Upstate Medical Center, Veterans Administration Hospital, Syracuse, New York



  1. Search for ROBERT O. BECKER in:

About this article

Publication history

Issue Date



Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.