Letter | Published:

Activation of Amino-Acids in Micro-Organisms which produce Antibiotics

Naturevolume 191page411 (1961) | Download Citation



IT seems well established that the first steps in the biosynthesis of proteins are the activation of amino-acids in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the transfer of the activated amino-acids to a soluble fraction of ribonucleic acid (RNA)1. Such reactions are also involved in the biosynthesis of some peptides, for example, the condensation of glutamyl-cysteine with glycine to give glutathione2. Enzymes activating almost all the naturally occurring L-amino-acids have been isolated from animal, plant, and microbial sources. Only one enzyme active on a D-amino acid, D-alanine, has been demonstrated in cells of Lactobacillus arabinosus and other Lacto-bacillaceae3.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Lipmann, F., et al., J. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 54, Supp. 1, 75 (1959). Hoagland, M. B., Fourth Int. Congr. Biochem., Symp. 8, 199 (1960). Novelli, G. D., Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 14, 65 (1960).

  2. 2

    Bates, H. M., and Lipmann, F., J. Biol. Chem., 235, PC 22 (1960).

  3. 3

    Baddiley, J., and Nehaus, F. C., Biochem. J., 75, 579 (1960).

  4. 4

    DeMoss, J. A., and Novelli, G. D., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 22, 49 (1956).

  5. 5

    Ito, E., and Strominger, J. L., J. Biol. Chem., 235, PC 5, PC 7 (1960).

  6. 6

    Di Girolamo, M., Ciferri, O., and Bendicenti Di Girolamo, A. (unpublished results).

Download references

Author information


  1. Istituto di Genetica, Università di Pavia, Pavia

    • O. CIFERRI
    • , M. DI GIROLAMO


  1. Search for O. CIFERRI in:

  2. Search for M. DI GIROLAMO in:

  3. Search for A. BENDICENTI DI GIROLAMO in:

About this article

Publication history

Issue Date




By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.