Activity-based Diffusion Coefficients for Liquid Solutions

Abstract

WHETHER an equilibrium concept is applied to a consideration for diffusion in liquids or whether the methods of irreversible thermodynamics1,2 are used, it is clearly established that the driving force for molecular diffusion in liquids, such as occurs in the well-known diaphragm cell, is the gradient of the chemical potential. However, it has been the common practice to report diffusion coefficients calculated on the basis of concentration gradients as the driving force rather than the gradients of the chemical potential.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    de Groot, S. R., Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes (North Holland and Interscience, 1951).

  2. 2

    Bird, R. B., “Theory of Diffusion”, Advances in Chemical Engineering, 1 (Academic Press, 1956).

  3. 3

    Dullien, F. A. L., and Shemilt, L. W., Nature, 187, 767 (1960).

  4. 4

    Caldwell, C. S., and Babb, A. L., J. Phys. Chem., 60, 51 (1956).

  5. 5

    Dullien, F. A. L., and Shemilt, L. W., (submitted for publication, Canad. J. Chem. Eng.).

  6. 6

    Hammond, B. R., and Stokes, R. H., Trans. Farad. Soc., 49, 890 (1953).

  7. 7

    Guggenheim, E. A., Thermodynamics, 229 (North Holland and Interscience, 1957).

  8. 8

    Dobson, H. J. E., J. Chem. Soc., 2866 (1925).

  9. 9

    Johnson, P. A., and Babb, A. L., J. Phys. Chem., 60, 14 (1956).

  10. 10

    Scatchard, G., Wood, S. E., and Mochel, J. M., J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 68, 1957 (1946).

  11. 11

    McCracken, P. G., and Smith, J. M., Amer. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 2, 498 (1956).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

DULLIEN, F., SHEMILT, L. Activity-based Diffusion Coefficients for Liquid Solutions. Nature 190, 526–528 (1961). https://doi.org/10.1038/190526b0

Download citation

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.