DR. W. ROSS ASHBY'S communication on this subject1 is very interesting and may prove to have much technical value, provided that it is possible to achieve a closed system of the outputs with which the brain may respond to the incoming message. This is the crux of the whole question. It is assumed that useful closed formalisms for this purpose are possible. In point of fact, every formalism that we know is made to work, by unformalized human adjustments. Without these, the formalism would become so complex that it would lose its value as a shorthand. It would be uneconomical in practice.
Nature, 187, 532 (1960)