Expanded Ilio-Sacral Joint in the Toad Xenopus laevis

Article metrics


THE pelvis of Salientia is characterized by very long ilia which connect with transverse processes of the sacral vertebræ. In some Salientia these processes are greatly expanded laterally. The functional significance of this modification was, however, not clear1.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Noble, G. K., “The Biology of the Amphibia” (McGraw-Hill, N.Y. (1931)).

  2. 2

    Green, T. L., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1259 (1931).

  3. 3

    Gadow, H., “Amphibia and Reptiles”. “The Cambridge Natural History” (1901).

  4. 4

    Grobbelaar, C. S., Z. ges. Anat. (Abt. 1, Z. Anat.), 72, 131 (1924).

  5. 5

    Ridewood, W. G., Anat. Anz., 13 (1897).

  6. 6

    Nauck, E. T., Vergl. Anat. (Bolk et al.), 5 (1938).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

PALMER, M. Expanded Ilio-Sacral Joint in the Toad Xenopus laevis . Nature 187, 797–798 (1960) doi:10.1038/187797a0

Download citation

Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.