Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • Article
  • Published:

Evolutionary Systems–Animal and Human

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout


  1. Bateson, W., “Mendel's Principles of Heredity” (Cambridge University Press, 1909).

    Book  Google Scholar 

  2. Darlington, C. D., “The Evolution of Genetic Systems” (Cambridge University Press, 1939).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Waddington, C. H., “The Strategy of the Genes” (Allen and Unwin, London, 1957).

    Google Scholar 

  4. Waddington, C. H., Evolution, 10, 1 (1957); J. Genet., 55, 241 (1956).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Darlington, C. D., “The Control of Evolution in Man” (Woodhull Lecture). Proc. Roy. Inst. Vol. 37; Nature, 182, 14 (1958); see also “The Facts of Life” (Allen and Unwin, London, 1953).

    Google Scholar 

  6. Waddington, C. H., “The Human Evolutionary System”. Proc. Conference on Darwin and Sociology, Edinburgh, April, 1959 (in the press).

    Google Scholar 

  7. Mead, Margaret, “New Lives for Old” (Gollancz, London, 1956).

    Google Scholar 

  8. Lerner, I. M., “Genetic Homeostasis” (Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 1954).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

WADDINGTON, C. Evolutionary Systems–Animal and Human. Nature 183, 1634–1638 (1959).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing