Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Oxygen as a Donor Element in Germanium


THERE have been a number of studies of the germanium–oxygen system from the point of view of compound formation, thermodynamics and crystal structure. Some workers have studied the effects of oxide films on the surface properties of germanium, with particular reference to conduction and rectification. However, little seems to have been published on the behaviour of oxygen as a significant doping impurity in bulk germanium. Clarke1 observed, during experiments on the effect of oxygen on surface conduction, that after repeated exposure to oxygen, followed by heating in a high vacuum, a high resistivity germanium sample acquired a permanent larger n-type conductivity. This appeared to be due to the diffusion of n-type centres deep into the sample, and he suggested that oxygen might be responsible for these donor centres in the bulk while at the same time producing electron traps at the surface.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout


  1. Clarke, E. N., Phys. Rev., 95, 284 (1954).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Billig, E., quoted by Dunlap in “Progress in Semiconductors”, 2, 182 (Heywood and Co., 1957).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Armstrong, J. A., Tyler, W. W., and Woodbury, H. H., Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc., Ser. 2, 2, 265 (1957).

    Google Scholar 

  4. Kaiser, W., Phys. Rev., 105, 1751 (1957). Kaiser, W., and Keck, P. H., J. App. Phys., 28, 882 (1957).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Thurmond, C. D., Guldner, W. G., and Beach, A. L., J. Electrochem. Soc., 103, 603 (1956).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

ELLIOTT, G. Oxygen as a Donor Element in Germanium. Nature 180, 1350–1351 (1957).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing