IT was shown some years ago that changes in elastic constants accompany the hardening process in steel1 and can be measured by ultrasonic techniques. More detailed experiments have been made recently on two commercial steels containing about 1 per cent carbon. The steels were quenched in oil from 780° C. and then tempered for one hour at temperatures between 100° C. and 650° C., in steps of 50° C. Young's modulus, E, and the rigidity modulus, G, were measured after each heat treatment by the ultrasonic-pulse method. The rigidity modulus was also measured by static loading, the same specimens being used.
Engineer, 191, 318 (1951).
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BROWN, A., COLE, A. & MARKHAM, M. Variation of Elastic Constants of Hardened 1 per cent Carbon Steels on Tempering. Nature 180, 1254 (1957). https://doi.org/10.1038/1801254a0