Surface Tension as the Cause of Bénard Cells and Surface Deformation in a Liquid Film


IN 1900, Bénard1 described his observations of a cellular deformation produced on the free surface of a liquid film the bottom surface of which (in contact with a floor) was uniformly heated and hotter than its top surface. He also observed a cellular flow associated with the deformation. These studies were made on films of thicknesses in the range 0.5–1.0 mm.

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