Motion of Sporadic-E Patches determined from High-Frequency Backscatter Records


NEW evidence of the motion of ‘sporadic-E’ ionization has been obtained at Stanford University from records of ionospheric sounding equipment which displays ground (or sea) backscatter as mirrored in ionospheric layers or reflecting clouds. Sporadic-E patches of relatively limited geographical extent (order of 10,000 sq. km.) often appear on the records of this apparatus, and their growth and motion can in some cases be followed. Whether this motion is due to physical translation of the ionized material (as by winds) or to some other cause such as motion of an ionizing agency is not known; however, it is of interest to compare observations made by this relatively new technique with earlier ones made by other means.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Peterson, A. M., J. Geophys. Res., 56, 221 (1952).

  2. 2

    Villard, O. G., Peterson, A. M., and Manning, L. A., Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. (Aug. 1952).

  3. 3

    Villard, O. G., and Peterson, A. M., Science, 116, 221 (1952).

  4. 4

    Ferrell, O. P., Science and Culture (June 1944).

  5. 5

    Gerson, N. C., Canad. J. Phys. (May 1951).

  6. 6

    Mitra, S. N., Proc. J. Elect. Eng. (September 1949).

  7. 7

    Manning, L. A., Villard, O. G., and Peterson, A. M., Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. (Aug. 1950).

  8. 8

    Elford, W. S., and Robertson, D. S., J. Atmos. and Terr. Phys., 4, 271 (1953).

  9. 9

    Greenhow, J. S., Phil. Mag., 471 (May, 1954).

  10. 10

    Salzburg, C. D., and Greenstone, R., J. Geophys. Res., 521 (Dec. 1951).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.