During the last three decades, several myeloablative conditioning regimens have been used for AML allografts. In this review, we systematically examine the data from studies reporting on myeloablative conditioning regimens for AML allografts. High-dose busulfan combined with cyclophosphamide (BuCy) and cyclophosphamide in combination with total body irradiation (CyTBI) are the two most commonly used conditioning regimens for AML allografts. From the available data, there are no significant differences in survival with these two regimens. A small benefit of decreased relapse rate with CyTBI is counterbalanced by a nonsignificant increase in treatment-related mortality. The incidence of veno-occlusive disease is significantly higher in patients treated with BuCy. Therapeutic monitoring of busulfan was not reported in any of the studies comparing the regimens. Either of the regimens can be used for AML allografts, and the choice may ultimately depend on local availability and expertise. Further improvements may be possible from modifications of the standard regimens. Data from these latter studies seem to be encouraging, but are not based on comparative randomized trials.
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We thank Dr JM Rowe for a careful review of the manuscript and helpful comments. AK holds the Gloria and Seymour Epstein Chair in Cell Therapy and Transplantation at University Health Network and University of Toronto.
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Gupta, V., Lazarus, H. & Keating, A. Myeloablative conditioning regimens for AML allografts: 30 years later. Bone Marrow Transplant 32, 969–978 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bmt.1704285
- conditioning regimen
- total body irradiation
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