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Graft-Versus-Leukaemia

A potential graft-versus-leukemia effect after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the French Bone Marrow Transplantation Society

Summary:

Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) acute lymphoblastic leukemia-positive (ALL) is a subgroup of ALL with a poor prognosis. We sought to evaluate the results of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in this situation. From 1992 to 2000, 121 patients with Ph- positive ALL enrolled in one of the three main French prospective ALL chemotherapy trials and receiving allogeneic HSCT were reported to the registry of the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation (SFGM-TC). The median age was 35 years (range, 1–53). In all, 76 patients received HSCT in first complete remission and 45 in a more advanced disease stage. Minimal residual disease was evaluated just before the graft: 35 patients of the 52 patients in first remission had persistent BCR-ABL transcript detectable while 17 had no detectable minimal residual disease. Bone marrow and/or peripheral blood samples from 94 patients were submitted for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis at variable points after transplantation. Estimated 2-year survival and relapse rate for patients in CR1 were 50 and 37%, respectively, significantly better than for patients with more advanced disease (P=0.0001 and 0.01, respectively). There was no difference in survival or in relapse rates in terms of the donor used. Relapse was the most common cause of treatment failure. Hematological status at the time of transplant and the occurrence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) were the only two prognostic factors identified for relapse (P=0.02 and 0.02, respectively). Detection of BCR-ABL transcripts after transplantation had a predictive value on relapse occurrence. Finally, donor lymphocyte infusions were successfully used to treat some relapses. The graft-versus-leukemia effect of HSCT in Ph-positive ALL appears to be supported by (1) the lack of prognostic significance of pretransplant BCR-ABL transcript detection, (2) the efficacy of donor lymphocyte infusions in cases of relapse, and (3) the role of GvHD as protecting against relapse.

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Appendix

Appendix

The members of the participating teams from the SFGM-TC are: A Baruchel, A Devergie, H Dombret, H Espérou, E Gluckman, Ph Guardiola, T Leblanc, P Ribaud, Ph Rousselot, G Socié (Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris); JM Boiron, J Reiffers (Hôpital du Haut Lévêque, Pessac); M Kuentz, C Cordonnier, J Beaune (Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil); I Yacoub-Agha, JP Jouet (Hôpital Huriez, Lille); E Deconinck, JY Cahn (Hôpital Jean Minjoz, Besançon); Ph Moreau, N Milpied, B Gueglio (Hôtel Dieu, Nantes); JH Bourhis, L Jolibois (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif); M Michalet, V Lhéritier (Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon); C Faucher, D Blaise, D Reportier (Institut Paoli Calmette, Marseille); P Bordigoni (Hôpital d'enfants Vandoeuvre lès Nancy); N Ifrah, M Truchan-Graczyk (Centre Hospitalier, Angers); N Dhedin, JP Vernant, L Sutton, M Cornillot (Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpétrière, Paris); M Attal (Hôpital Purpan, Toulouse); B Lioure (Hôpital de Haute Pierre, Strasbourg) N Fegeux, Ph Quittet, JF Rossi (Centre hospitalier, Montpellier); A Buzyn, A Fisher, I Hirsh (Hôpital Necker, Paris); A Stamatoulas-Bastard, H Tilly (Centre Henri Becquerel, Rouen); D Guyotat (Hôpital Nord Saint-Etienne); F Demeocq, JL Stephan, JO Bay (Clermond Ferrand); M Duval, E Vilmer, R Larche (Hôpital Robert Debré, Paris); F Garban, JJ Sotto (Hôpital Michallon, Grenoble); A Sadoun (Hôpital Jean Bernard, Poitiers); N Gratecos (Hôpital de L'Archet, Nice); T de Revel, G Nedellec (Hôpital Inter Armées Percy, Clamart).

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Espérou, H., Boiron, JM., Cayuela, JM. et al. A potential graft-versus-leukemia effect after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the French Bone Marrow Transplantation Society. Bone Marrow Transplant 31, 909–918 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bmt.1703951

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Keywords

  • acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Philadelphia chromosome
  • hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • minimal residual disease
  • graft-versus-leukemia effect

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