Conditioning Regimens

Cyclophosphamide, cytosine arabinoside and TBI as a conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in patients with leukemia

Abstract

This is a prospective study designed to determine the toxicity, efficacy and antileukemic effect of high-dose cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI) as a myeloablative regimen prior to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for patients with hematologic malignancies. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies were treated with cyclophosphamide, high-dose ara-C and total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Fifty patients had good prognosis disease and eight had poor prognosis disease. Cyclosporine and short-course methotrexate were used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The conditioning regimen consisted of ara-C 3000 mg/m2 twice a day × six doses on days −7, −6, and −5; cyclophosphamide 1800 mg/m2 on days −4 and −3; and TBI 1400 cGy midline dose at 5 cGy/min in eight total fractions administered twice a day on days −4, −3, −2, and −1. The bone marrow was infused on day 0 (zero). Toxicity related to the conditioning regimen was comparable to that reported with other conditioning regimens, except for diarrhea which appears to be more frequent. The actuarial survival at 1 year was 69% (58–82) and at 5 years was 54% (42–69) with the numbers in parentheses representing the 95% confidence interval of the Kaplan–Meier estimate. After a median follow-up of 28 months, 31 of 58 (53%) patients are alive without evidence of disease. Only four of the 58 patients (7%) have relapsed. Cyclophosphamide, ara-C and TBI is a safe and effective myeloablative regimen for patients with leukemia. The overall relapse rate in our study was 7% with a median follow-up of 28 months and appears to be lower than relapse rates reported in other series. This is probably due to the added antileukemic effect of ara-C. This regimen should be compared with other myeloablative regimens in a controlled study.

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Correspondence to AP Jillella.

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Jillella, A., Doria, R., Khan, K. et al. Cyclophosphamide, cytosine arabinoside and TBI as a conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in patients with leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplant 23, 1095–1100 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bmt.1701786

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Keywords

  • ara-C
  • cyclophosphamide
  • bone marrow transplant
  • myeloablation
  • preparative regimen
  • veno-occlusive disease
  • leukemia

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