Young's Modulus as a Function of Wire Diameter


IT was observed that, during annealing, the modulus of elasticity of copper wires may be appreciably lowered1. This phenomenon has been explained by Barrett2 as resulting from alterations in their textures. As has been shown by Schmid and Wassermann3, most metals with a face-centred cubic structure such as copper, silver or gold exhibit a double fibre structure when cold drawn. This double texture consists of crystals the [111] or [100] directions of which are parallel to the axis of the wire. In copper, for example, 40 per cent of the grains are oriented in the [100] and 60 per cent in the [111] direction. Body-centred cubic metal wire, such as iron, tungsten and molybdenum, was found to have a simple [110] texture4,5.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Phillips, A. J., and Smith, A. A., Proc. Amer. Soc. Test. Mat., 36, (2) 263 (1936).

  2. 2

    Barrett, C. S., “Structure of Metals”, 457 (McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.).

  3. 3

    Schmid, E., and Wassermann, G., Z. Phys., 42, 779 (1927).

  4. 4

    Ettisch, M., Polanyi, M., and Weissenberg, K., Z. Phys., 7, 181 (1921).

  5. 5

    Jeffries, Z., Trans. Amer. Inst. Mech. Eng., 70, 303 (1924).

  6. 6

    Schmid, E., and Boas, W., “Kristallplastizitat”, 202 (Berlin, 1935).

  7. 7

    Norton, J. T., and Kuczynski, G. C., Instruments, 21, 4, 328 (1948).

  8. 8

    Schmid, E., and Wassermann, G., Z. Metallk., 19, 325 (1927).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

KUCZYNSKI, G. Young's Modulus as a Function of Wire Diameter. Nature 165, 562–563 (1950).

Download citation

Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.