Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • Letter
  • Published:

Pregnancy Test using Male Anura


CONFIRMING the validity of the Galli-Mainini test for pregnancy in the male toad Bufo arenarum1 and referring to the suitability of B. marinus2 and Rana pipiens3, Haines4 raises the question of the possible suitability of two European species, B. bufo and R. temporaria. We have demonstrated5 the suitability of a European frog, R. esculenta ; and on a theoretical basis we have assumed that the Galli-Mainini test must be common to the Anura (toads and frogs).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Galli-Mainini, C., Sem méd. (Buenos Aires), 69, 337 and 70, 447 (1947).

    Google Scholar 

  2. Lima, O. R., and Pereira, O. G., Nature, 161, 676 (1948).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Wiltberger, P. B., and Miller, D. F., Science, 107, 198 (1948).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Haines, M., Nature, 162, 416 (1948).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Aznar-Ferreres, J., Laboratorio (Granada), 5, 535 (1948).

    Google Scholar 

  6. Reports of several authors compiled by C. Galli-Mainini, J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 138, 121 (1948).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Olivella, Martell and Benach, quoted by Anido Fraguio, V., and Anido Fraguio, G., "Laboratorio Clinico", 2 (second edit., Cultural S.A., La Habana, 1948).

    Google Scholar 

  8. Cerquiglini, S., Bol. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper., 24, 225 (1948).

    Google Scholar 

  9. Creze, J., and Fonty, P., Ann. Biol. Clin., 6, 326 (1948).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

AZNAR-FERRERES, J. Pregnancy Test using Male Anura. Nature 163, 881–882 (1949).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing