MR. JAMES HORNELL, who died at Hastings on February 24 at the age of eighty-three, was a pioneer. He was one of the first marine biologists and fishery naturalists to be employed as such, and his experience of the fisheries of warmer seas placed him in a unique position for many years. Educated in Scotland and at the University of Liverpool, his early experience was gained on a fisheries survey of the Channel Islands, where he met his wife. Shortly after this he left England, and in 1904 was appointed marine biologist to the Government of Ceylon and four years later in the same capacity to the Government of Madras. Here he began a connexion with tropical seas which occupied the greater part of his working life.