Table 3 Energy values of macronutrients and specific carbohydrates in foods (kJ/g)a

From: Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates

  cIE DE ME NME
Macronutrients
 Fat 39.3 37.4 37.4 36.6
 Protein 23.6 21.7 16.8 13.4
 Available carbohydratesb 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7
 ‘Fibre’/NSP 17.0 7.7 7.7 6.0
 Alcohol 29.6 29.6 29.0 25.8
Specific carbohydrates
Available carbohydrates
Glucose monohydrate 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1
Glucose 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7
Fructose 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.2
Lactose 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.3
Sucrose 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.3
Starch 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5
Fibre
Fermentable ‘fibre’ 17.0 11.0 11.0 8.0
Non-fermentable ‘fibre’ 17.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
 Resistant starch 17.5 11.4 11.4 8.8
 Non-digestible oligosaccharides
General, conventional foods 17.0 11.1 11.1 8.4
Isolated/synthetic     
Fructooligosaccharides 17.0 11.1 11.1 8.4
Synthetic polydextrose (5% glucose) 16.9 6.6 6.6 5.2
Inulin (pure) 17.5 11.4 11.4 8.8
Polyols
Erythritol 17.2 16.6 1.1 0.9
Glycerol 18.0 18.0 18.0 16.6
Isomalt 17.0 11.6 11.2 8.9
Lactitol 17.0 11.1 10.7 8.2
Maltitol 17.0 13.4 13.0 11.5
Mannitol 16.7 12.3 8.1 6.3
Polyglycitol 17.1 13.5 13.2 11.6
Sorbitol 16.7 12.0 11.7 9.7
Xylitol 17.0 14.0 13.7 12.4
  1. Abbreviations: cIE, combustible intake of energy; DE, digestible energy; ME, metabolizable energy; NME, net metabolizable energy; NSP, non-starch polysaccharides.
  2. aBased on Livesey (2003a). The values for macronutrients have also been reported in Livesey (2001), with some trivial differences in the values for protein and alcohol. For available carbohydrates, see also Livesey and Elia (1988) and Elia and Livesey (1992). For fibre see text.
  3. bAvailable carbohydrate (as monosaccharide equivalents) measured by direct analysis of sugars. When carbohydrate is measured ‘by difference’, the values increase by 1 kJ/g.