Table 3: Energy values of macronutrients and specific carbohydrates in foods (kJ/g)a

From: Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates

 Available carbohydratesb15.715.715.715.7
Specific carbohydrates
Available carbohydrates
  Glucose monohydrate14.
  Fermentable ‘fibre’
  Non-fermentable ‘fibre’
 Resistant starch17.511.411.48.8
 Non-digestible oligosaccharides
General, conventional foods17.
  Synthetic polydextrose (5% glucose)
  Inulin (pure)17.511.411.48.8
  1. Abbreviations: cIE, combustible intake of energy; DE, digestible energy; ME, metabolizable energy; NME, net metabolizable energy; NSP, non-starch polysaccharides.
  2. aBased on Livesey (2003a). The values for macronutrients have also been reported in Livesey (2001), with some trivial differences in the values for protein and alcohol. For available carbohydrates, see also Livesey and Elia (1988) and Elia and Livesey (1992). For fibre see text.
  3. bAvailable carbohydrate (as monosaccharide equivalents) measured by direct analysis of sugars. When carbohydrate is measured ‘by difference’, the values increase by 1 kJ/g.