Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Carbohydrate terminology and classification

Abstract

Dietary carbohydrates are a group of chemically defined substances with a range of physical and physiological properties and health benefits. As with other macronutrients, the primary classification of dietary carbohydrate is based on chemistry, that is character of individual monomers, degree of polymerization (DP) and type of linkage (α or β), as agreed at the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Consultation in 1997. This divides carbohydrates into three main groups, sugars (DP 1–2), oligosaccharides (short-chain carbohydrates) (DP 3–9) and polysaccharides (DP10). Within this classification, a number of terms are used such as mono- and disaccharides, polyols, oligosaccharides, starch, modified starch, non-starch polysaccharides, total carbohydrate, sugars, etc. While effects of carbohydrates are ultimately related to their primary chemistry, they are modified by their physical properties. These include water solubility, hydration, gel formation, crystalline state, association with other molecules such as protein, lipid and divalent cations and aggregation into complex structures in cell walls and other specialized plant tissues. A classification based on chemistry is essential for a system of measurement, predication of properties and estimation of intakes, but does not allow a simple translation into nutritional effects since each class of carbohydrate has overlapping physiological properties and effects on health. This dichotomy has led to the use of a number of terms to describe carbohydrate in foods, for example intrinsic and extrinsic sugars, prebiotic, resistant starch, dietary fibre, available and unavailable carbohydrate, complex carbohydrate, glycaemic and whole grain. This paper reviews these terms and suggests that some are more useful than others. A clearer understanding of what is meant by any particular word used to describe carbohydrate is essential to progress in translating the growing knowledge of the physiological properties of carbohydrate into public health messages.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

References

  • American Association of Cereal Chemists (2001). The definition of dietary fibre. Cereal Foods World 46, 112–126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Asp N-G (1995). Classification and methodology of food carbohydrates as related to nutritional effects. Am J Clin Nutr 61 (Suppl 4), S980–S987.

    Google Scholar 

  • Atwater WO, Woods CD (1986). The Chemical Composition of American Food Materials. Experiment Station Bulletin no. 28. US Official Experiment Stations: Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Becker W, Asp N-G (2006). Carbohydrates and dietary fibre.

  • British Nutrition Foundation (1990). Complex Carbohydrates in Foods: Report of the British Nutrition Foundation's Task Force. Chapman and Hall: London.

  • Champ M, Langkilde AM, Brouns F, Kettlitz B, Le Bail-Collet Y (2003). Advances in dietary fibre characterization. 2. Consumption, chemistry, physiology and measurement of resistant starch; implications for health and food labelling. Nutr Res Rev 16, 143–161.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Grundy SM, Brinkley LJ (2000). Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 342, 1392–1398.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Crapo PA, Reaven G, Olefsky J (1977). Postprandial plasma-glucose and insulin responses to different complex carbohydrates. Diabetes 26, 1178–1183.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cummings JH, Englyst HN (1995). Gastrointestinal effects of food carbohydrate. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 938S–945S.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cummings JH, Edmond LM, Magee EA (2004). Dietary carbohydrates and health: do we still need the fibre concept? Clin Nutr Suppl 1, 5–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cummings JH, Macfarlane GT, Englyst HN (2001). Prebiotic digestion and fermentation. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 415S–420S.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cummings JH, Roberfroid MB, Andersson H, Barth C, Ferro-Luzzi A, Ghoos Y et al. (1997). A new look at dietary carbohydrate: chemistry, physiology and health. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 417–423.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Department of Health (1989). Dietary Sugars and Human Disease. Her Majesty's Stationery Office: London.

  • Elia M, Cummings JH (2007). Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates. Eur J Clin Nutr 61 (Suppl 1), S40–S74.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ellegard L, Andersson H, Bosaeus I (1997). Inulin and oligofructose do not influence the absorption of cholesterol, or the excretion of cholesterol, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, or bile acids but increases energy excretion in ilesotomy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 1–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Englyst HN, Cummings JH (1986). Digestion of the polysaccharides of banana (Musa paradisiaca sapientum) in man. Am J Clin Nutr 44, 42–50.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Englyst HN, Cummings JH (1987). Resistant starch, a ‘new’ food component: a classification of starch for nutritional purposes. In: Morton ID (ed). Cereals in a European Context. Ellis Horwood: Chichester. pp 221–233.

    Google Scholar 

  • Englyst HN, Kingman SM, Cummings JH (1992). Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr 46, S33–S50.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Englyst HN, Quigley ME, Hudson GJ (1994). Determination of dietary fibre as non-starch polysaccharides with gas–liquid chromatographic, high-performance liquid chromatographic or spectrophotometric measurement of constituent sugars. Analyst 119, 1497–1509.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Englyst K, Liu S, Englyst H (2007). Nutritional characterisation and measurement of dietary carbohydrates. Eur J Clin Nutr 61 (Suppl 1), S19–S39.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • European Communities (1990). Council directive 90/496/EEC on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs.

  • European Communities (2000). Council directive 2000/13/EC on the approximation of the laws of the member states relating to the labelling, presentation and advertising of foodstuffs.

  • FAO (1998). Carbohydrates in human nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper no. 66.

  • FAO (2003). Food Energy—Methods of Analysis and Conversion Factors. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome. Report of a Technical Workshop. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper no. 77.

  • Food and Drug Administration (1993). Food labelling: mandatory status of nutrition labelling and nutrient content revision, format for nutrition label. Fed Regist 58, 2079–2228.

    Google Scholar 

  • Food and Drug Administration (1999). Health claim notification for whole grain foods. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/flgrains.html.

  • Food Standards Agency/Institute of Food Research (2002). The Composition of Foods Sixth Summary Edition. Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge.

  • Foster-Powell K, Holt SHA, Brand-Miller JC (2002). International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 5–56.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Galliard TE (1987). Starch: Properties and Potential. John Wiley & Sons: Chichester.

    Google Scholar 

  • Giacco R, Parillo M, Rivellese AA, Lasorella G, Giacco A, D’Episcopo L et al. (2000). Long-term dietary treatment with increased amounts at fiber-rich low-glycemic index natural foods improves blood glucose control and reduces the number of hypoglycemic events in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 23, 1461–1466.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gibson GR, Roberfroid M (1995). Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125, 1401–1412.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gibson GR, Probert HM, Van Loo J, Rastall RA, Roberfroid M (2004). Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiotia: updating the concept of prebiotics. Nutr Res Rev 17, 259–275.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gibson SA (2000). Breakfast cereal consumption in young children: associations with non-milk extrinsic sugars and caries experience: further analysis of data from the UK national diet and nutrition survey of children aged 1.5–4.5 years. Public Health Nutr 3, 227–232.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gregory J, Foster K, Tyler H, Wiseman M (1990). Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults. Her Majesty's Stationery Office: London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haber GB, Heaton KW, Murphy D, Burroughs LF (1977). Depletion and disruption of dietary fibre: effects on satiety, plasma-glucose and serum insulin. Lancet ii, 679–682.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harnack L, Walters SA, Jacobs Jr DR (2003). Dietary intake and food sources of whole grains among US children and adolescents: data from the 1994–1996 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals. J Am Diet Assoc 103, 1015–1019.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Health Canada (2005). Canadian nutrient file. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/fiche-nutri-data/index_e.html.

  • Health and Welfare Canada (1985). Report of the Expert Advisory Committee a Dietary Fibre.

  • Henderson L, Gregory J, Swan G (2002). The National Diet & Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years. Vol. 1: Types and Quantities of Food Consumed. Her Majesty's Stationery Office: London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hidaka H, Eida T, Takizawa T, Tokunaga T, Tashiro Y (1986). Effects of fructooligosaccharides on intestinal flora and human health. Bifidobacteria Microflora 5, 37–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holland B, Unwin ID, Buss DH (1992). Fruit and Nuts. First Supplement to 5th Edition of McCance and Widdowson's the Composition of Foods. Her Majesty's Stationery Office: London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holland B, Unwin ID, Buss DH (eds) (1988). Cereals and Cereal Products. Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holland B, Unwin ID, Buss DH (eds) (1991a). Vegetables, Herbs and Spices. Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holland B, Welch AA, Unwin ID, Buss DH, Paul AA, Southgate DAT (1991b). McCance & Widdowson's the Composition of Foods. Her Majesty's Stationery Office: London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoover R, Sosulski FW (1991). Composition, structure, functionality, and chemical modification of legume starches: a review. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 69, 79–92.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9057022/oligosaccharide.

  • http://www.ccnfsdu.de/fileadmin/user_upload/PDF/ReportCCNFSDU2005.pdf.

  • Institute of Medicine (2001). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. National Academy Press: Washington, DC.

  • IUB–IUPAC Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (1982). Abbreviated terminology of oligosaccharide chains. J Biol Chem 257, 3347–3351.

    Google Scholar 

  • IUPAC–IUB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (1996). Nomenclature of carbohydrates. www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/2carb/.

  • Jacobs Jr DR, Meyer HE, Solvoll K (2001). Reduced mortality among whole grain bread eaters in men and women in the Norwegian county study. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 137–143.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jacobs Jr DR, Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Folsom AR (1998). Whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease death in postmenopausal women: the Iowa women's health study. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 248–257.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • James WPT, Theander O (eds) (1981). The Analysis of Dietary Fibre in Food. Marcel Dekker: New York. p 259.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Leeds AR, Gassull MA, Haisman P, Dilawari J et al. (1978). Dietary fibres, fibre analogs, and glucose-tolerance-importance of viscosity. Br Med J 1, 1392–1394.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, Barker H, Fielden H, Baldwin JM et al. (1981). Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34, 362–366.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jensen MK, Koh-Banerjee P, Hu FB, Franz M, Sampson L, Grnbæk M et al. (2004). Intakes of whole grains, bran, and germ and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 1492–1499.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kelly SA, Summerbell C, Rugg-Gunn AJ, Adamson A, Fletcher E, Moynihan PJ (2005). Comparison of methods to estimate non-milk extrinsic sugars and their application to sugars in the diet of young adolescents. Br J Nutr 94, 114–124.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kennedy G, Burlingame B (2003). Analysis of food composition data on rice from a plant genetic resources perspective. Food Chem 80, 589–596.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kiehm TG, Anderson JW, Ward K (1976). Beneficial effects of a high carbohydrate, high fiber diet on hyperglycemic diabetic men. Am J Clin Nutr 29, 895–899.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kunz C, Rudloff S, Baier W, Klein N, Strobel S (2000). Oligosaccharides in human milk: structural, functional, and metabolic aspects. Annu Rev Nutr 20, 699–722.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lang R, Thane CW, Bolton-Smith C, Jebb SA (2003). Consumption of whole-grain foods by British adults: findings from further analysis of two national dietary surveys. Public Health Nutr 6, 479–484.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Langkilde AM, Champ M, Anderson H (2002). Effects of high-resistant-starch banana flour (RS2) on in vitro fermentation and the small-bowel excretion of energy, nutrients, and sterols: an ileostomy study. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 104–111.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Livesey G (2003). Health potential of polyols as sugar replacers, with emphasis on low glycaemic properties. Nutr Res Rev 16, 163–191.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Macfarlane S, Macfarlane GT, Cummings JH (2006). Prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 24, 701–714.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mann J (1984). Lines to legumes: changing concepts of diabetic diets. Diabet Med 1, 191–198.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mann J, De Leeuw I, Hermansen K, Karamanos B, Karlström B, Katsilambros N et al. (2004). Evidence-based nutritional approaches to the treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 14, 373–394.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McCance RA, Lawrence RD (1929). The Carbohydrate Content of Foods. Her Majesty's Stationery Office: London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Molis C, Flourie B, Ouarne F, Gailing MF, Lartigue S, Guibert A et al. (1996). Digestion, excretion and energy value of fructooligosaccharides in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 324–328.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • National Academy of Sciences (2001). Dietary References Intakes. Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber. National Academy of Sciences: Washington DC.

  • New Zealand Nutrition Foundation (2004). Sugar and our diet. http://www.chelsea.co.nz/shared/documents/report.pdf.

  • Oku T, Tokunaga T, Hosoya N (1984). Non-digestibility of a new sweetener ‘Neosugar’ in the rat. J Nutr 114, 1574–1581.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pehrsson PR, Cutrufelli RL, Gebhardt SE, Lemar LE, Holcomb GT, Haytowitz DB et al. (2005). USDA database for the added sugars content of selected foods. www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata.

  • Prosky L, Asp N-G, Schweizer TF, De Vries JW, Furda I (1992). Determination of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber in foods and food products: collaborative study. J AOAC Int 75, 360–367.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Regina A, Bird A, Topping D, Bowden S, Freeman J, Barsby T et al. (2006). High-amylose wheat generated by RNA interference improves indices of large-bowel health in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, 3546–3551.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Rivellese A, Riccardi G, Giacco A, Pacioni D, Genovese S, Mattioli PL et al. (1980). Effect of dietary fibre on glucose control and serum-lipoproteins in diabetic-patients. Lancet 2, 447–450.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Roberfroid M (2005). Inulin-type Fructans. Functional Food Ingredients. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roberfroid M, Gibson GR, Delzenne N (1993). The biochemistry of oligofructose, a non-digestible fiber: an approach to calculate its caloric value. Nutr Rev 51, 137–146.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Saltmarsh ME (2000). Essential Guide to Food Additives. Leatherhead Publishing: Leatherhead.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seal CJ (2006). Whole grains and CVD risk. Proc Nutr Soc 65, 24–34.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs (1977). Dietary Goals for the United States. US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

  • Silvester KR, Englyst HN, Cummings JH (1995). Ileal recovery of starch from whole diets containing resistant starch measured in vitro and fermentation of ileal effluent. Am J Clin Nutr 62, 403–411.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Simpson HC, Simpson RW, Lousley S, Carter RD, Geekie M, Hockaday TD et al. (1981). A high-carbohydrate leguminous fiber diet improves all aspects of diabetic control. Lancet 1, 1–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Simpson RW, Mann JI, Eaton J, Carter RD, Hockaday TD (1979). High-carbohydrate diets and insulin dependent diabetics. Br Med J 2, 523–525.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Southgate DAT (1978). Free sugars in foods. J Hum Nutr 32, 335–347.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Southgate DAT (1991). Determination of Food Carbohydrates. Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd: Barking.

    Google Scholar 

  • Southgate DAT (1995). Digestion and metabolism of sugars. Am J Clin Nutr 62 (Suppl 1), S203–S211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stephen AM (2006). Impact of Carbohydrate Methodology on Dietary Intake. Copenhagen, April 2006.

  • Stephen AM, Thane CT, Bramweh CF (2007). Sugars in the diet: definitions, intakes and sources—an update. (in preparation).

  • Stephen AM, Haddad AC, Phillips SF (1983). Passage of carbohydrate into the colon. Direct measurements in humans. Gastroenterology 85, 589–595.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Thane CT, Jones AR, Stephen AM, Seal CJ, Jebb SA (2005). Whole-grain intake of British young people aged 4–18 years. Br J Nutr 94, 825–831.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Thane CW, Jones AR, Stephen AM, Seal CJ, Jebb SA (2007). Comparative whole-grain intake of British adults in 1986–7 and 2000–1. Br J Nutr 97, 987–992.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • The Nordic Council (2004). Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004, Integrating Nutrition and Physical Activity. The Nordic Council of Ministers, The Nordic Food Policy Co-Operation. Copenhagen.

  • Trowell H (1972). Dietary fibre and coronary heart disease. Eur J Clin Biol Res 17, 345–349.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • United States Department of Agriculture (2007): http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata.

  • van Loo J, Coussement P, de Leenheer L, Hoebregs H, Smits G (1995). On the presence of inulin and oligofructose as natural ingredients in the western diet. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 35, 525–552.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Venn BJ, Green TJ (2007). Glycemic index and glycemic load: measurement issues and their effect on diet–disease relationships. Eur J Clin Nutr 61 (Suppl 1), S122–S131.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Venn BJ, Mann JI (2004). Cereals grains, legumes and diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 1443–1461.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ward RE, Niñonuevo M, Mills DA, Lebrilla CB, German JB (2006). In vitro fermentation of breast milk oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus gasseri. Appl Environ Microbiol 72, 4497–4499.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • WHO (2003). Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. World Health Organization: Geneva.

  • Willett WC (1998). The dietary pyramid: does the foundation need repair? Am J Clin Nutr 68, 218–219.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Professor Ingvar Bosaeus, Dr Barbara Burlingame, Professor Jim Mann, Professor Timothy Key, Professor Carolyn Summerbell, Dr Bernard Venn and Dr Martin Wiseman for the valuable comments they provided on the earlier manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J H Cummings.

Additional information

Conflict of interest

During the preparation and peer review of this paper in 2006, the authors and peer reviewers declared the following interests.

Authors

Professor John H Cummings: Chairman, Biotherapeutics Committee, Danone; Member, Working Group on Foods with Health Benefits, Danone; funding for research work at the University of Dundee, ORAFTI (2004).

Dr Alison M Stephen: Contract with World Sugar Research Organization on trends in intakes of sugars and sources in the diet (contract is with MRC-Human Nutrition Resource); contracts with Cereal Partners UK on whole-grain intakes in the UK and relationship to adiposity (contract was with MRC-Human Nutrition Resource); Adviser to Audrey Eyton on scientific content on book ‘F2 Diet’; Scientific Advisory Panel of Canadian Sugar Institute (not for profit but funded by sugar industry) (1995–2002).

Peer-reviewers

Professor Ingvar Bosaeus: none declared.

Dr Barbara Burlingame: none declared.

Professor Jim Mann: none declared.

Professor Timothy Key: none declared.

Professor Carolyn Summerbell: none declared.

Dr Bernard Venn: none declared.

Dr Martin Wiseman: none declared.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Cummings, J., Stephen, A. Carbohydrate terminology and classification. Eur J Clin Nutr 61 (Suppl 1), S5–S18 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602936

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602936

Keywords

  • carbohydrate
  • sugars
  • oligosaccharides
  • starch
  • dietary fibre
  • classification

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links