Table 1 Baseline demographic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics of the study population according to sex and BMI strata

From: Whole-grain consumption, dietary fibre intake and body mass index in the Netherlands cohort study

BMI (kg m2) Men Women
  <25 25 and <30 30 <25 25 and <30 30
n (%) 1104 (53.1) 895 (43.1) 79 (3.8) 1202 (55.7) 760 (35.2) 197 (9.1)
  Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.
Age (years) 61.2 4.2 61.4 4.2 60.9 4.0 61.3 4.3 61.6 4.2 61.1 4.2
BMI (kg m−2) 23.1 1.5 26.7 1.2 31.5 1.7 22.6 1.7 27.0 1.3 32.6 2.3
Nonoccupational moderate physical activity (min day−1) 80 63 83 74 73 68 67 52 64 52 57 52
  %   %   %   %   %   %  
Lower educationa(%) 40.3   50.4**   54.6*   49.2   63.9**   69.6**  
Current cigarette smokers (%) 38.1   33.7*   26.6*   24.2   16.8**   20.8  
History of chronic diseases (%)
 Cardiovascular diseases 14.8   17.3   20.3   7.5   8.3   8.6  
 Hypertension 20.0   26.0**   40.5**   21.7   35.9**   41.6**  
 Diabetes 3.1   3.2   5.1   2.5   4.3*   6.6*  
 Intestinal disorders 15.9   11.4**   7.6**   9.6   6.4*   5.1*  
 Gallstones 4.6   5.8   5.1   11.1   16.4**   22.8**  
Any diet in past 5 years (%) 16.8   16.7   24.0   18.0   24.0**   25.4*  
Energy-restricted diet in past 5 years (%) 0.7   2.6**   6.3*   1.3   5.4**   12.2**  
Energy (kJ) 9202 2096 8921* 2175 8989 2169 7183 1738 6860** 1497 6831** 1685
Protein (energy %) 14.0 2.3 14.5** 2.4 14.7* 2.6 15.4 2.7 16.3** 2.9 16.7** 3.2
Fat (energy %) 38.6 5.9 39.0 5.9 39.5 5.8 39.1 5.8 39.1 5.5 39.1 5.5
Carbohydrates total (energy %) 42.5 6.8 41.1** 6.6 40.5* 7.1 42.7 6.5 42.2 6.0 42.4 6.0
 Mono- and disaccharides (energy %) 19.8 6.2 18.7** 6.1 17.3** 6.2 20.5 5.9 19.6* 5.6 19.3* 5.4
 Polysaccharides (energy %) 22.6 4.9 22.3 4.8 23.1 6.0 22.1 4.6 22.6 4.3 23.0* 4.2
Alcohol (energy %) 4.6 5.2 5.1 5.4 4.9 5.7 2.6 4.0 2.2 3.8 1.6** 3.3
Vegetables (g day−1) 190 83 194 84 198 88 195 80 197 82 200 86.5
Fruit (g day−1) 155 116 155 114 136 92 195 120 202 126 187 110
Fibre (g day−1) 29.2 8.9 28.1* 8.6 27.6 7.7 25.4 7.3 25.1 6.5 25.3 7.2
Fibre density (g MJ−1) 3.2 0.9 3.2 0.8 3.2 0.9 3.6 0.9 3.7* 0.8 3.8* 0.9
Fibre from grain (g day−1) 12.3 6.0 11.4* 5.8 11.2 5.0 10.1 4.4 9.5 3.9 9.9 4.2
Fibre density from grain (g MJ−1) 1.4 0.6 1.3* 0.6 1.3 0.6 1.4 0.6 1.4 0.6 1.5 0.6
All grain (g day−1)b
 No. of users (%) 456 (41.3) 290 (32.4)* 19 (24.0) 634 (52.7) 343 (45.1)* 74 (37.6)*
 Intake of users (mean, s.d.) 11.3 16.9 9.0* 11.8 4.4** 4.3 8.2 9.6 6.9 9.1 6.9 8.2
Whole grain (g day−1)c
 No. of users (%) 441 (39.9) 267 (29.8)** 19 (24.0) 571 (47.5) 303 (39.9)* 64 (32.5)*
 Intake of users (mean, s.d.) 10.9 16.5 8.7* 11.4 4.4** 4.3 7.7 9.2 6.5 9.1 6.0 7.7
Total brown bread (g day−1)d
 No. of users (%) 1024 (92.8) 816 (91.1) 73 (92.4) 1115 (92.8) 713 (93.8) 190 (96.4)*
 Intake of users (mean, s.d.) 157 79 152 78 153 88 124 54 120 46 125 54
  1. Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.
  2. aTwo lowest categories (lower and lower vocational) combined.
  3. bAll grain=bran, germs, muesli, porridge, brown rice and cooked grains (expressed as dry weight).
  4. cWhole grain=all grain without bran and germs.
  5. dTotal brown bread=sum of brown, wholemeal and rye bread.
  6. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, overweight or obese compared to group with BMI<25.