Table 2 Distributions of eating styles and their relation to obesity (BMI30 Kg/m2) in Finnish young adults

From: Eating styles, overweight and obesity in young adult twins

  Women Men
  Usually Often Sometimes Rarely Difference in mean BMI within gender, P-valuea Usually Often Sometimes Rarely Difference in mean BMI within gender, P-valuea Gender difference, P-valueb
Frequent snacking between meals
 Mean BMI 22.9 22.8 22.2 21.7 <0.001 24.5 24.6 23.8 23.6 <0.001 <0.001
 % Obese 6.7 5.6 3.6 1.9   5.7 7.9 4.2 2.8   
N 134 649 861 679   88 315 696 955   
Frequent snacks replace meals
 Mean BMI 22.4 22.5 22.2 22.2 0.61 23.1 24.7 23.7 23.9 0.02 <0.001
 % Obese 0.0 5.8 3.7 3.5   0.0 7.9 3.8 4.1   
N 25 277 1127 898   24 139 896 994   
Highest food consumption in the evening
 Mean BMI 23.0 22.5 22.3 21.9 <0.001 23.7 24.3 23.6 24.0 0.003 0.12
 % Obese 6.9 5.1 4.1 2.0   4.0 7.1 3.3 3.3   
N 203 549 813 757   174 440 695 736   
Grazing throughout the evening
 Mean BMI 23.3 22.8 22.3 21.9 <0.001 24.7 23.9 24.0 23.8 0.26 <0.001
 % Obese 11.0 6.1 3.9 2.2   8.6 6.3 4.9 2.8   
N 73 391 973 885   58 207 857 926   
Attempting to maintain healthy eating patterns
 Mean BMI 21.8 22.3 23.1 21.4 <0.001 23.7 23.8 24.1 24.0 0.09 <0.001
 % Obese 2.1 3.4 8.8 0.0   2.9 3.9 5.7 4.4   
N 825 1005 442 54   488 805 619 136   
Avoiding fatty foods
 Mean BMI 21.9 22.3 22.6 21.4 <0.001 24.2 24.1 24.1 23.4 <0.001 <0.001
 % obese 1.3 3.9 5.6 2.1   6.1 3.3 4.5 3.7   
N 450 763 874 239   198 335 845 675   
Avoiding calories
 Mean BMI 22.2 22.4 22.7 21.4 <0.001 24.9 24.5 24.4 23.5 <0.001 <0.001
 % Obese 1.4 3.2 5.5 2.7   6.1 5.4 5.0 3.4   
N 208 524 969 620   66 187 659 1136   
Eating while watching TV
 Mean BMI 22.7 22.4 22.0 22.2 0.02 24.0 23.9 23.9 23.9 0.98 0.07
 % Obese 6.0 4.4 3.2 3.1   3.7 3.8 3.9 5.9   
N 267 722 907 426   273 681 743 355   
Visual cues (seeing food or food ads) prompt eating
 Mean BMI 23.0 22.8 22.3 22.2 0.56 23.0 24.7 23.9 23.9 0.44 <0.001
 % Obese 15.4 10.0 3.4 3.7   0.00 3.0 4.0 4.3   
N 13 70 670 1573   6 33 375 1633   
Food used as a reward
 Mean BMI 23.3 22.9 22.2 22.1 0.004 24.1 24.2 23.9 23.7 0.20 <0.001
 % Obese 7.6 6.0 3.3 3.8   2.0 6.8 4.0 3.9   
N 53 298 1258 718   49 220 1008 776   
Comfort eating
 Mean BMI 23.8 23.9 22.6 21.9 <0.001 23.6 24.6 23.9 23.7 0.67 <0.001
 % Obese 7.1 7.5 5.8 2.6   4.4 6.6 5.1 3.8   
N 28 133 678 1488   23 61 428 1537   
  1. Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.
  2. aP-values were calculated using analysis of variance corrected for clustered sampling within the twin pair with the svyreg procedure in Stata 8.0.
  3. bP-values were calculated using the χ2 test for independence corrected for clustered sampling within the twin pair with the svytab procedure in Stata 8.0.