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Coffee consumption is inversely associated with cognitive decline in elderly European men: the FINE Study

Abstract

Objective:

To investigate whether coffee consumption is associated with 10-year cognitive decline in elderly men, as results of previous studies obtained hitherto have been controversial and prospective information on this association has been lacking.

Design, subjects and setting:

Six hundred and seventy six healthy men born between 1900 and 1920 from Finland, Italy and the Netherlands participated in a 10-year prospective cohort study. Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (0–30 points, with a higher score indicating better cognitive performance). Coffee consumption was estimated in cups per day. A mixed longitudinal model was used to investigate the association between baseline coffee consumption and 10-year cognitive decline. Multiple adjustments were made.

Results:

Men who consumed coffee had a 10-year cognitive decline of 1.2 points (4%). Non-consumers had an additional decline of 1.4 points (P<0.001). An inverse and J-shaped association was observed between the number of cups of coffee consumed and cognitive decline, with the least cognitive decline for three cups of coffee per day (0.6 points). This decline was 4.3 times smaller than the decline of non-consumers (P<0.001).

Conclusions:

Findings suggest that consuming coffee reduces cognitive decline in elderly men. An inverse and J-shaped association may exist between the number of cups of coffee consumed and cognitive decline, with the least cognitive decline for men consuming three cups of coffee per day.

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Acknowledgements

The FINE Study is a part of the HALE project (Healthy Ageing: Longitudinal study in Europe) and supported by a grant from the European Union (QLK6-CT-2000-00211) to D Kromhout.

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Correspondence to B M van Gelder.

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Guarantor: B van Gelder.

Contributors: All authors have contributed substantially to conception and design of the study, or analyses and interpretation of the data. They approved the final version and will take public responsibility for the content of this paper. There are no conflicts of interest with other organizations:BM van Gelder prepared part of the database, analyzed the data, and wrote the draft of the paper. B Buijsse, M Tijhuis and S Kalmijn contributed to the data analysis and drafting of the paper. S Kalmijn, S Giampaoli, A Nissinen and D Kromhout all contributed to the data collection. S Giampaoli, A Nissinen and D Kromhout are principal investigators of the FINE study in respectively Italy, Finland and The Netherlands. D Kromhout contributed to the drafting of the paper. All authors contributed to the final version of the paper and gave their approval to publish this final version.

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van Gelder, B., Buijsse, B., Tijhuis, M. et al. Coffee consumption is inversely associated with cognitive decline in elderly European men: the FINE Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 226–232 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602495

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602495

Keywords

  • coffee
  • cognition
  • elderly
  • epidemiology

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