Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the study population according to categories of coffee consumption

From: Coffee consumption is inversely associated with cognitive decline in elderly European men: the FINE Study

Characteristics Categories of daily coffee consumption P-value for trenda
  0 cups n=145 1 cups n=133 2 cups n=107 3 cups n=105 4 cups n=85 >4 cups n=101  
Country        
 Finland (no.) 10 1 13 14 34 29  
 Italy (no.) 119 85 23 10 0 2  
 The Netherlands (no.) 16 47 71 81 51 70  
Demographic variables        
 Age (mean (s.e.), years) 77.2 (0.4) 77.1 (0.4) 75.7 (0.4) 75.6 (0.4) 75.2 (0.5) 74.8 (0.4) <0.0001
 Education (mean (s.e.), years received) 6.6 (0.3) 6.9 (0.3) 8.4 (0.3) 8.5 (0.4) 7.6 (0.4) 7.7 (0.4) <0.0001
 BMI (mean (s.e.), kg/m2) 25.9 (0.3) 26.2 (0.3) 25.7 (0.3) 25.8 (0.3) 26.2 (0.4) 26.1 (0.3) 0.90
Lifestyle        
 Cigarette smokers (%) 16 17 19 16 18 33 0.001
 Alcohol consumers (%) 80 75 84 76 77 81 0.79
 Leisure time physical activity (mean (s.e.), min/week) 689 (56) 687 (57) 681 (64) 717 (65) 658 (72) 718 (66) 0.97
Cognitive functioning        
 Unadjusted MMSE score (mean (s.e.)) 25.3 (0.2) 25.1 (0.2) 26.0 (0.3) 26.1 (0.3) 26.0 (0.3) 26.2 (0.3) <0.0001
 Adjusted MMSE score (mean (s.e.))b 25.7 (0.2) 25.4 (0.2) 25.7 (0.2) 25.8 (0.2) 25.8 (0.3) 26.0 (0.2) 0.20
  1. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; s.e., standard error.
  2. Values are percentages of participants, unless otherwise indicated.
  3. aLinear trend for associations with coffee consumption based on a general linear model, obtained by analyses of variance.
  4. bAdjusted for age (continuous), education (continuous), country, cigarette smoking (yes/no), alcohol use (yes/no) and physical activity (categorical).