Table 1 Selected characteristics of the study population at baseline, stratified by country and coffee consumption (n=676)

From: Coffee consumption is inversely associated with cognitive decline in elderly European men: the FINE Study

Characteristics Finland The Netherlands Italy
  Non-consumers (n=10) Consumers (n=91) Pa-value Non-consumers (n=16) Consumers (n=320) Pa-value Non-consumers (n=119) Consumers (n=120) Pa-value
Demographics
 Age (mean (s.d.), years) 75.9 (5.2) 74.9 (4.4) 0.50 75.7 (5.1) 75.7 (4.3) 0.99 77.4 (4.0) 76.7 (3.5) 0.16
 Education (mean (s.d.), years received) 5.0 (2.9) 4.0 (2.5) 0.24 11.0 (2.5) 10.3 (4.3) 0.33 4.8 (2.7) 5.1 (2.5) 0.50
 BMI (mean (s.d.), kg/m2) 28.3 (4.3) 26.1 (3.9) 0.10 25.4 (2.9) 25.8 (3.0) 0.63 25.9 (3.6) 26.5 (3.6) 0.17
Lifestyle
 Cigarette smokers (numbers (%)) 0 (0) 10 (11) 0.59 2 (13) 75 (23) 0.31 18 (15) 26 (22) 0.19
 Alcohol consumers (numbers (%)) 9 (90) 77 (85) 1.00 10 (63) 242 (76) 0.24 99 (83) 95 (79) 0.43
 Leisure time physical activity (mean (s.d.), min/week) 910 (1652) 622 (575) 0.60 609 (223) 636 (544) 0.35 698 (732) 883 (791) 0.063
Cognitive functioning
 Unadjusted MMSE score (mean (s.d.)) 25.3 (3.9) 25.4 (3.1) 0.90 26.9 (2.2) 26.4 (2.3) 0.35 24.9 (2.9) 24.9 (2.7) 0.94
 Adjusted MMSE score (means (s.e.))b 25.1 (0.93) 25.5 (0.30) 0.69 26.7 (0.52) 26.4 (0.12) 0.53 25.0 (0.23) 24.8 (0.23) 0.48
  1. Abbreviations: MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; s.d., standard deviation; s.e., standard error.
  2. aP-value for difference between coffee consumers and non-consumers based on Student's t-test, χ2 test, Fisher's exact test or co-variance analysis.
  3. bAdjusted for age (continuous), education (continuous), cigarette smoking (yes/no), alcohol use (yes/no) and physical activity (categorical).