Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Vinegar dressing and cold storage of potatoes lowers postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy subjects



To investigate the effects of cold storage and vinegar addition on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to a potato meal in healthy subjects.

Subjects and setting:

A total of 13 healthy subjects volunteered for the study, and the tests were performed at Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden.

Experimental design and test meals:

The study included four meals; freshly boiled potatoes, boiled and cold stored potatoes (8°C, 24 h), boiled and cold stored potatoes (8°C, 24 h) with addition of vinaigrette sauce (8 g olive oil and 28 g white vinegar (6% acetic acid)) and white wheat bread as reference. All meals contained 50 g available carbohydrates and were served as a breakfast in random order after an overnight fast. Capillary blood samples were collected at time intervals during 120 min for analysis of blood glucose and serum insulin. Glycaemic (GI) and insulinaemic indices (II) were calculated from the incremental areas using white bread as reference.


Cold storage of boiled potatoes increased resistant starch (RS) content significantly from 3.3 to 5.2% (starch basis). GI and II of cold potatoes added with vinegar (GI/II=96/128) were significantly reduced by 43 and 31%, respectively, compared with GI/II of freshly boiled potatoes (168/185). Furthermore, cold storage per se lowered II with 28% compared with the corresponding value for freshly boiled potatoes.


Cold storage of boiled potatoes generated appreciable amounts of RS. Cold storage and addition of vinegar reduced acute glycaemia and insulinaemia in healthy subjects after a potato meal. The results show that the high glycaemic and insulinaemic features commonly associated with potato meals can be reduced by use of vinegar dressing and/or by serving cold potato products.


The Swedish Agency for Innovation Systems (Project No P11900-3 A) and Öresund Starch Profiles (ÖSP).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Figure 1
Figure 2

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Asp NG (1992): Resistant starch – Proceedings from the 2nd Plenary Meeting of Euresta – European Flair Concerted Action 11 on Physiological Implications of the Consumption of Resistant Starch in Man. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 46, S1.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berry CS (1986): Resistant starch: formation and measurement of starch that survives exhaustive digestion with amylolytic enzymes during the determination of dietary fibre. J. Cereal Sci. 4, 301–314.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Björck I, Liljeberg H & Östman E (2000): Low glycaemic-index foods. Br. J. Nutr. 83, S149–S155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Björck IM & Siljeström MA (1992): In-vivo and in-vitro digestibility of starch in autoclaved pea and potato products. J. Sci. Food Agric. 58, 541–553.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brighenti F, Castellani G, Benini L, Casiraghi MC, Leopardi E, Crovetti R & Testolin G (1995): Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood glucose and acetate responses to a mixed meal in healthy subjects. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 49, 242–247.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brouns F, Kettlitz B & Arrigoni E (2002): Resistant starch and ‘the butyrate revolution’. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 13, 251–261.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cummings JH, Beatty ER, Kingman SM, Bingham SA & Englyst HN (1996): Digestion and physiological properties of resistant starch in the human large bowel. Br. J. Nutr. 75, 733–747.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dysseler P & Hoffem D (1994): Estimation of resistant starch intake in Europe. In Proceedings of the concluding plenary meeting of EURESTA, April 1994. European Flair – Concerted Action no. 11 (COST 911) eds N-G Asp, JMM van Amelsvoort, JGAJ Hautvast, Wageningen: European Commission.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ebihara K & Nakajima A (1988): Effect of acetic-acid and vinegar on blood-glucose and insulin responses to orally-administered sucrose and starch. Agric. Biol. Chem. 52, 1311–1312.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Englyst HN & Cummings JH (1987): Digestion of polysaccharides of potato in the small intestine of man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45, 423–431.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Foster-Powell K, Holt SH & Brand-Miller JC (2002): International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76, 5–56.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fredriksson H, Björck I, Andersson R, Liljeberg H, Silverio J, Eliasson A-C & Åman P (2000): Studies on α-amylase degradation of retrograded starch gels from waxy maize and high-amylopection potato. Carbohydr. Polym. 43, 81–87.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fredriksson H, Silverio J, Andersson R, Eliasson A-C & Åman P (1998): The influence of amylose and amylopectin characteristics on gelatinization and retrogradation properties of different starches. Carbohydr. Polym. 35, 119–134.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fushimi T, Tayama K, Fukaya M, Kitakoshi K, Nakai N, Tsukamoto Y & Sato Y (2001): Acetic acid feeding enhances glycogen repletion in liver and skeletal muscle of rats. J. Nutr. 131, 1973–1977.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Garcia-Alonso A & Goni I (2000): Effect of processing on potato starch: in vitro availability and glycaemic index. Nahrung. 44, 19–22.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Granfeldt Y, Drews A & Björck I (1995): Arepas made from high amylose corn flour produce favorably low glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans. J. Nutr. 125, 459–465.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hallert C, Björck I, Nyman M, Pousette A, Granno C & Svensson H (2003): Increasing fecal butyrate in ulcerative colitis patients by diet: controlled pilot study. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 9, 116–121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holm J, Björck I, Drews A & Asp N-G (1986): A rapid method for the analysis of starch. Starch/Stärke 38, 224–226.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins DJ, Jenkins AL, Wolever TM, Collier GR, Rao AV & Thompson LU (1987): Starchy foods and fiber: reduced rate of digestion and improved carbohydrate metabolism. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. 129, 132–141.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, Barker H, Fielden H, Baldwin JM, Bowling AC, Newman HC, Jenkins AL & Goff DV (1981): Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34, 362–366.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Johnston CS, Kim CM & Buller AJ (2004): Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 27, 281–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kanan W, Bijlani RL, Sachdeva U, Mahapatra SC, Shah P & Karmarkar MG (1998): Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to natural foods, frozen foods and their laboratory equivalents. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 42, 81–89.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kingman SM & Englyst HN (1994): The influence of food preparation methods on the in-vitro digestibility of starch in potatoes. Food Chem. 49, 181–186.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liljeberg H & Björck I (1994): Bioavailability of starch in bread products. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects and in vitro resistant starch content. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 48, 151–163.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liljeberg H & Björck I (1998): Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 52, 368–371.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liljeberg HG, Lönner CH & Björck IM (1995): Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans. J. Nutr. 125, 1503–1511.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Franz M, Sampson L, Hennekens CH & Manson JE (2000): A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 1455–1461.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martin LJM, Dumon HJW & Champ MMJ (1998): Production of short-chain fatty acids from resistant starch in a pig model. J. Sci. Food Agric. 77, 71–80.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Matsuda M & DeFronzo RA (1999): Insulin sensitivity indices obtained from oral glucose tolerance testing: comparison with the euglycemic insulin clamp. Diabetes Care 22, 1462–1470.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McKeown NM, Meigs JB, Liu S, Saltzman E, Wilson PW & Jacques PF (2004): Carbohydrate nutrition, insulin resistance, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Diabetes Care 27, 538–546.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ogawa N, Satsu H, Watanabe H, Fukaya M, Tsukamoto Y, Miyamoto Y & Shimizu M (2000): Acetic acid suppresses the increase in disaccharidase activity that occurs during culture of caco-2 cells. J. Nutr. 130, 507–513.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Raben A, Tagliabue A, Christensen NJ, Madsen J, Holst JJ & Astrup A (1994): Resistant starch: the effect on postprandial glycemia, hormonal response, and satiety. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 60, 544–551.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Roediger WE (1980): Role of anaerobic bacteria in the metabolic welfare of the colonic mucosa in man. Gut 21, 793–798.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Spiegelman D, Jenkins DJ, Stampfer MJ, Wing AL & Willett WC (1997a): Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20, 545–550.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL & Willett WC (1997b): Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 277, 472–477.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Scheppach W, Fabian C, Sachs M & Kasper H (1988): The effect of starch malabsorption on fecal short-chain fatty acid excretion in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 23, 755–759.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Soh NL & Brand-Miller J (1999): The glycaemic index of potatoes: the effect of variety, cooking method and maturity. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 53, 249–254.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y & Koyama W (2003): Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 57, 743–752.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wolever TM (1990): The glycemic index. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 62, 120–185.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Åkerberg AK, Liljeberg HG, Granfeldt YE, Drews AW & Björck IM (1998): An in vitro method, based on chewing, to predict resistant starch content in foods allows parallel determination of potentially available starch and dietary fiber. J. Nutr. 128, 651–660.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Östman E, Granfeldt Y, Persson L & Björck I (2005): Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects. The doi-number is: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602197.

  • Östman EM, Liljeberg Elmståhl HG & Björck IM (2002a): Barley bread containing lactic acid improves glucose tolerance at a subsequent meal in healthy men and women. J. Nutr. 132, 1173–1175.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Östman EM, Nilsson M, Liljeberg Elmståhl H, Molin G & Björck I (2002b): On the effect of lactic acid on blood glucose and insulin responses to cereal products: mechanistic studies in healthy subjects and in vitro. J. Cereal Sci. 36, 339–346.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We thank Lisbeth Persson for invaluable technical assistance.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to M Leeman.

Additional information

Guarantor: I Björck.

Contributors: ML, EÖ and IB made the design of the study. ML was responsible for collection and analysis of data. ML, EÖ and IB contributed to the writing of the manuscript.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Leeman, M., Östman, E. & Björck, I. Vinegar dressing and cold storage of potatoes lowers postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 1266–1271 (2005).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


This article is cited by


Quick links