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Palatability and glucose, insulin and satiety responses of chickpea flour and extruded chickpea flour bread eaten as part of a breakfast


Objective: To determine the effect of adding chickpea flour or extruded chickpea flour to white bread on palatability and postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia and satiety.

Design: A randomised, single-blind, cross-over study of four 50 g available carbohydrate breakfasts.

Setting: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University.

Subjects: In all, 12 healthy subjects were recruited through posted notices. Totally, 11 (nine male, two female) completed the study (mean±s.e.m.; age 32±2 y; body mass index, 24.7±0.8 kg/m2).

Intervention: After overnight fasting, subjects consumed a control (white) bread (WB) breakfast twice, a chickpea bread (CHB) breakfast once and an extruded chickpea bread (EXB) breakfast once. Palatability and postprandial blood glucose, insulin and satiety responses were determined. Following this, food intakes from an ad libitum buffet and for the remainder of the day were assessed.

Results: A trend towards a lower incremental area under the curve (IAUC) of glucose for the CHB breakfast compared to the WB breakfast was observed (P=0.087). The IAUC of insulin and insulinaemic index (II) of the CHB breakfast were higher (P<0.05) than for the WB breakfast. No differences in glycaemic index (GI), satiety response, food intake or palatability were observed.

Conclusions: CHB and EXB demonstrated acceptable palatability. CHB demonstrated some hypoglycaemic effect compared to WB, but neither CHB nor EXB demonstrated effects on satiety or food intake. The hyperinsulinaemic effect of CHB observed in this study requires further investigation.

Sponsorship: Grains Research and Development Corporation.

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We thank Carl Gibbons for database construction, Damien Jolley for assistance with statistical design and analysis, Andrew Garnham for performing catheterization, Rachel Kelly and Aung Htoon for preparation of extruded chickpea flour and Amynta Baxter and Amanda Hawkins for technical assistance. We would also like to thank study participants for their time.

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Correspondence to S K Johnson.

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Guarantor: SK Johnson.

Contributors: SKJ was involved in all parts of the study from conception to preparation of the final manuscript. SJT and RSH performed the experimental aspects of the human study and some data analysis.

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Johnson, S., Thomas, S. & Hall, R. Palatability and glucose, insulin and satiety responses of chickpea flour and extruded chickpea flour bread eaten as part of a breakfast. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 169–176 (2005).

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  • glycaemic
  • insulinaemic
  • satiety
  • chickpea
  • extrusion
  • palatability

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