Table 7 Co-occurrence of health-compromising factors in adults and adolescents

From: Breakfast skipping and health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults

  Adults Adolescents
  All adults, N=4660 Breakfast skippers, N=1546 Breakfast eaters, N=3114 P All adolescents, N=5448 Breakfast skippers, N=1587 Breakfast eaters, N=3861 P
Co-occurring factors n % n % n %   n % n % n %  
Smokinga 2683 1093 1590 *** 3727 1217 2510 ***
  57.6 70.7 51.1   68.4 76.7 65.0  
Smoking, alcohol useb 1822 747 1075 *** 1373 524 849 ***
  39.0 48.3 34.5   25.2 33.3 22.0  
Smoking, lack of exercisec 753 368 385 *** 901 367 534 ***
  16.2 24.3 12.4   16.5 23.2 13.8  
Smoking, alcohol use, lack of exercise 493 241 252 *** 406 183 223 ***
  10.6 15.8 8.1   7.5 11.6 5.8  
Smoking, alcohol use, lack of exercise, overweightd 273 139 134 *** 18 9 9 **
  5.9 9.1 4.3   0.3 0.6 0.2  
Smoking, alcohol use, lack of exercise, obesitye 72 30 42 1 1 0
  1.5 2.0 1.3   0.02 0.06 0  
  1. aPast or present smoking.
  2. bAdults: alcohol use 3–8 days a month or more often; adolescents, alcohol use once a week or more often.
  3. cExercise less than once a week.
  4. dDefined as body mass index (BMI)>25.
  5. eDefined as BMI>30.
  6. **P<0.01,
  7. ***P<0.001,
  8. P value could not be calculated due to small cell sizes.