Table 6 Multivariablea model of correlates of adult breakfast eating, N=4519

From: Breakfast skipping and health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults

  Breakfast skippers (vs eaters) Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence Intervalb)
Correlates Breakfast a few times a week Breakfast once a week or less often
Smoking   
 Has never smoked regularly (40.6%) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Has smoked or still smokes regularly (59.4%) 1.40 (1.14–1.72)*** 2.02 (1.70–2.41)***
Alcohol use   
 Less than 2 days a month (40.7%) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 3 days a month or more often (59.3%) 1.11 (0.90–1.37) 1.20 (1.01–1.42)*
Highest education   
 University degree (4.6%) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Senior high school graduation (17.2%) 1.05 (0.60–1.86) 1.46 (0.90–2.38)
 Senior high school dropout or vocational school (21.4%) 1.62 (0.95–2.77) 1.92 (1.21–3.06)**
 Mandatory education only (56.9%) 1.99 (1.19–3.34)** 2.66 (1.70–4.15)***
BMI   
 <20 (3.8%) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 20–24.9 (45.4%) 1.32 (0.74–2.35) 0.91 (0.62–1.35)
 25–29.9 (38.6%) 1.33 (0.74–2.40) 1.08 (0.73–1.60)
 ≥30 (12.3%) 1.98 (1.07–3.65)* 1.11 (0.72–1.71)
Age   
 30–39 y (14.9%) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 40–49 y (67.3%) 0.77 (0.59–1.02) 0.81 (0.66–1.01)
 50–59 y (16.4%) 0.62 (0.45–0.92)* 0.67 (0.51–0.89)**
 60 y or older (1.3%) 0.39 (1.15–1.06) 0.50 (0.24–1.03)
Exercise   
 Exercise 6 times a month or more (40.3%) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Exercise 3–5 times a month (29.9%) 1.08 (0.85–1.38) 1.22 (1.02–1.48)*
 Exercise 1–2 times a month (23.9%) 1.20 (0.92–1.55) 1.81 (1.48–2.21)***
 Exercise less than once a month (3.8%) 0.83 (0.41–1.67) 2.52 (1.76–3.59)***
 Data missing (2.2%) 0.83 (0.41–1.67) 1.46 (0.91–2.33)
Sex   
 Male (48.0%) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
 Female (52.0%) 0.64 (0.53–0.77)*** 0.73 (0.63–0.85)***
  1. *P<0.05,
  2. **P<0.01,
  3. ***P≤0.001.
  4. aThe interaction between alcohol use and smoking could be dropped from the model without a significant decrease in model fit.
  5. bConfidence intervals adjusted for clustered sampling.
  6. Rounding error in sums of some percentages.