Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food

Abstract

Objective: The objectives were to examine the feasibility of using white rice as a reference food in the study of glycemic index (GI) and to examine the GI values of both single and mixed meal foods among rice species, processed rice products, beans, and dairy products.

Design: Subjects were served with 50 g carbohydrate content of white rice at least two times (maximum three times) and test food once after separate overnight fasts. Capillary blood glucose measurements were carried out before and during 120 min after each food load.

Setting: The study was carried out in an outpatient setting.

Subjects: A total of 58 (38 females and 20 males) nondiseased subjects, mean aged 37 y and mean BMI 22 kg/m2 were included.

Result: The correlation between incremental area under curve of white rice and glucose was r=0.853 (n=10, P<0.0001) and white rice was considered suitable to be used as a reference food. Among mixed meal foods, the combination of carbohydrate foods with vinegar, dairy products, and bean products significantly decreased the GI value of white rice of 20–40%. The reduction of GI occurred whether the foods were taken together, before or after rice intake. GI of noodles such as udon, soba, and spaghetti showed low GI values.

Conclusion: White rice could be used as a reference food in determining GI values of foods. A total of 32 single and mixed meal Japanese common food products were examined for their GI values.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1

References

  • Behall KM, Scholfield DJ & Hallfrisch J (2000): The effect of particle size of whole grain flour on plasma glucose, insulin and TSH in human subjects. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 18, 591–597.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Yuhaniak I & Canary J (1989): Diets containing high amylose vs amylopectin starch: effects on metabolic variables in human subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49, 337–344.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bornet FRJ, Costagliola D, Rizkalla SW, Blayo A, Fontvieille AM, Haardt MJ, Letanoux M, Tchobroutsky G & Slama G (1987): Insulinemic and glycemic indexes of six starch-rich foods taken alone and in a mixed meal by type 2 diabetics. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45, 588–595.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brand JC, Nicholson PL, Thorbum AW & Truswell AS (1985): Food processing and the glycemic index. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42, 1192–1196.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brand Miller JC (1994): Importance of glycemic index in diabetes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59, 747S–752S.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brighenti F, Castellani G, Benini L, Casiraghi MC, Leopardi E, Crovetti R & Testolin G (1995): Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood glucose and acetate responses to a mixed meal in healthy subjects. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 49, 242–247.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Collier G & O'Dea K (1983): The effect of coingestion of fat on the glucose, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to carbohydrate and protein. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 37, 94l–944.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Department of Health Promotion and Nutrition, The Ministry of Health (1996): The 1994 Japanese National Nutrition Survey. Daichi Publishing.

  • Fontvieille AM, Rizkalla SW, Acosta M, Bornet FR & Slama G (1992): The use of low glycaemic index foods improves metabolic control of diabetic patients over five weeks. Diabetic Med. 9, 444–450.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Foster-Powell & Brand Miller J (1995): International tables of glycemic index. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 871S–893S.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fushimi T, Tayama K, Fukaya M, Kitakoshi K, Nakai N, Tsukamoto Y & Sato Y (2001): Acetic acid feeding enhances glycogen repletion in liver and skeletal muscle of rats. J. Nutr. 131, 1973–1977.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jarvi AE, Kalstrom BE, Granfeldt YE, Bjorck IE, Asp NG & Vessby BO (1999): Improved glycemic control and lipid profile and normalized fibrinolytic activity on a low-glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetic patients (1999). Diabetes Care 22, 10–18.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jarvi A, Karlstrom B, Granfeldt Y, Bjorck I, Vessby B & Asp NG (1994): The influence of food structure on postprandial metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59, 794S.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Buckley G, LamKy, Giudici S, Kalmusky J, Jenkins AL, Patten RL, Bird J, Wong GS & Josse RG (1998): Low-glycemic-index starchy foods in the diabetic diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 48, 248–254.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins D, Wolever T & Kalmusky J (1987): Low-glycemic index diet in hyperlipidemia: use of traditional starchy foods. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 46, 66–71.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, Barker H, Hasemein F, Baldwin JM, Bowling AC, Newman HC, Henkins AL & Goff DV (1981): Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34, 184–190.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Katri SJ, Leo KN, Kirsi HL, Kaisa SP, Jens JH & Hannu MM (2002): Postprandial glucose, insulin, and incretin responses to grain products in healthy subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 75, 254–262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liljeberg EH & Bjorck I (2001): Milk as a supplement to mixed meals may elevate postprandial insulinaemia. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 55, 994–999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liljeberg H & Bjorck I (1998): Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 52, 368–371.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Luscombe ND, Noakes M & Clifton PM (1999): Diets high and low in glycemic index versus high monounsaturated fat diets: effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM. Eur. J. Clin Nutr. 53, 473–478.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Miller JB, Pang E & Bramall (1992): Rice—a high or low glycemic index food? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 56, 1034–1036.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Miller JB, Wolever TMS, Colagiuri S & Power KFB (1998): The Glucose Revolution. New York: Marlowe & Company, pp. 239–254.

    Google Scholar 

  • Panlasigui LN, Thompson LU, Juliano BO, Perez CM, Yiu SH & Greenberg GI (1991): Rice varieties with similar amylose content differ in starch digestibility and glycemic response in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54, 87l–877.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing Al & Willett WC (1997): Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 277, 472–477.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Traianedes K & O'Dea K (1986): Commercial canning increases the digestibility of beans in vitro and postprandial metabolic responses to them in vivo. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 44, 390–397.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wolever TMS, Boume GH (eds) (1990): The glycemic index. Aspects of some vitamins, minerals and enzymes in health and diseases. World Review Nutr Diet 62, 120–185.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wolever TMX, Jenkins DJA, Collier GR, Lee R, Wong GS & Josse RG (1988): Metabolic response to test meals containing different carbohydrate foods: relationship between rate of digestion and plasma insulin response. Nutr. Res. 8, 573–581.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL & Josse RG (1991): The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54, 846–854.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Wong GS & Josse RG (1992): Beneficial effect of low-glycemic index diet in overweight NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 15, 562–564.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank the staff from the Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Health Care Center and the staff from the Hospital Management Department, the National Institute of Health and Nutrition for their support and assistance. Also, we thank Dr N Hosoya (Professor Emeritus, the Tokyo University) for his invaluable advice to the research. The research was funded by the National Rice Association and the National Daily Promotion and Research Association of Japan.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Guarantor: M. Sugiyama.

Contributors: M Sugiyama provided the concept and design of the study. AC Tang carried out the literature research, data analyses and prepared the report. YW was responsible for data acquisition and analyses. WK was also responsible for the data acquisition.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M Sugiyama.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sugiyama, M., Tang, A., Wakaki, Y. et al. Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 743–752 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601606

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601606

Keywords

  • glycemic index
  • rice
  • bean
  • dairy
  • vinegar
  • Japanese food

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links