A STUDY of the history of Newfoundland should convince even the most hardened opponent of the need for Government planning. This island, a little larger than Ireland, a little smaller than England, has now some 320,000 inhabitants, mostly descendants of the original settlers who came from the British Isles. These settlers established themselves on the basis of one industry—cod-fishing—and sold,their dry salt cod in many markets of the world. They bothered little about agriculture, and they soon depleted the stocks of game which once enriched the interior. This dependence on a single ‘cash crop’ meant that a bad year or a fall in the demand for their product not only spelt economic distress at the time but also resulted in a general downward trend from which the community was unable to extricate itself. In 1934 it was found necessary to suspend Dominion status.