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Haemoglobin status of adult non-pregnant Kazakh women living in Kzyl-Orda region, Kazakhstan


Objective: To estimate the prevalence of anaemia among adult non-pregnant women in the Kzyl-Orda region of Kazakhstan, and to determine the association between haemoglobin concentration and anthropometric, socioeconomic, reproductive and dietary factors.

Design: A cross-sectional study using a randomly selected sample. Subjects were interviewed, and finger-prick blood samples and anthropometric measurements were collected. Associations between haemoglobin concentration and anthropometric and questionnaire data were evaluated by sequential linear regression analysis.

Setting: Health centres in Kazalinsk, Djalagash and Zhanakorgan districts of Kzyl-Orda region, Kazakhstan.

Subjects: Three-thousand six-hundred and twenty-five non-pregnant women aged 18–45 y randomly selected from health centre records.

Results: Iron deficiency anaemia, as reflected by low haemoglobin levels (Hb<12 g/dl), was detected in 40.2% of the total sample. There was a significant curvilinear relationship between haemoglobin concentration and age, with the nadir of the curve in the 30–40 y age-group. Haemoglobin concentration was found to be positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic factors. Significant negative associations were found between haemoglobin concentration and duration of menses, use of the intra-uterine contraceptive device and the consumption of tea.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that iron deficiency anaemia is present at considerable levels among adult women living in Kzyl-Orda region, Kazakhstan, and provides important baseline information for future research and public health interventions.

Sponsorship: Funding was provided by the United States Agency for International Development, Office of Nutrition, the United Kingdom Department for International Development, and the Polden-Puckham Trust.

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2001) 55, 1068–1075

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We thank the Institute of Geography in Almaty and the Kzyl-Orda Regional Health Authority for their help and support throughout the project. We are extremely grateful to the people of Kzyl-Orda for their overwhelming generosity and hospitality in very difficult times. The study was funded by the United States Agency for International Development, the UK's Department for International Development and the Polden-Puckham Trust. None of these organisations are responsible for the content of this article.

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Dangour, A., Hill, H. & Ismail, S. Haemoglobin status of adult non-pregnant Kazakh women living in Kzyl-Orda region, Kazakhstan. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 1068–1075 (2001).

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  • Kazakh
  • women
  • anaemia
  • haemoglobin
  • body mass index

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