Article | Published:

Nutrition and Symbiosis*

Naturevolume 160pages7881 (1947) | Download Citation

Subjects

Abstract

NUTRITION may be taken to include all those processes by which chemical substances essential to the life of a given species, be it plant or animal, become available for anabolism. Thus in plants, nutrition includes photosynthesis and root absorption, as well as the processes of digestion which occur in animals and insectivorous plants. The term ‘symbiosis’ in its original and widest sense signifies any phenomenon, from a balanced parasitism to complete mutualism, in which each partner gains nutritional benefit from the presence of the other. Such diverse phenomena as the harbouring of specific fauna and flora in the gut of insects and vertebrates and the occurrence of algae in the cells of Hydra viridis are, in the widest sense of the term, symbiotic.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. Bayner, New Phyt. (Reprint) (Wheldon and Wesley, London, 1927).

  2. Cartwright and Findlay, Biol. Rev., 18, 145 (1943). Parkin, Annals Appl. Biol., 29, 268(1942).

  3. Downie, Trans. and Proc. Bot. Soc. Edin., 33, (1), 36 (1940): 33, (2), 94 (1941); 33, (4), 383 (1943).

  4. Rayner and Neilson-Jones, âœProblems of Tree Nutritionâ (Faber and Faber, Ltd., London).

  5. Virtanen, âœCattle Fodder and Human Nutritionâ (Cambridge University Press, 1938); Nature, 155, 747 (1945).

  6. Bond, Ann. Bot., 5, 313, 647 (1947).

  7. Cleveland, Amer. J. Hyg., 3, 444 (1923); Biol. Bull., 46, 178(1924); 48, 282, 289, 309 (1925); 54, 231 (1928); Quart. Rev. Biol., 51 (1926).

  8. Peklo, Nature, 158, 795 (1946).

  9. Krebs, Biedermanns Zlb. (B) TierernÃhrung, 9, 394 (1937).

  10. McNaught and Smith, Biochem. J. (Proc.) 242nd Meeting (1945).

  11. Hungate, Biol. Bull., 84, 157 (1943).

  12. Elsden, Hitchcock, Marshall and Phillipson, J. Exp. Biol., 22, 191 (1946).

  13. Elsden, J. Exp. Biol., 22, 51 (1945).

  14. Kohler, J. Biol. Chem., 152, 215 (1944).

  15. Booth, Chem. and Industry, 61, 255 (1942).

  16. McElroy and Goss, J. Nutr., 21, 163, 405 (1941). Hunt, Kick, Burroughs, Bethke, Schalk and Gerlaugh, J. Nutr., 21, 85 (1941). Hunt, Burroughs, Bethke, Schalk and Gerlaugh, J. Nutr., 25, 207 (1943). Wegner, Booth, Elvehjem and Hart, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 45, 769 (1940); 47, 90 (1941).

  17. Fridericia, Freudenthal, Gudjonsson, Johansen, and Schoubye, J. Hyg. (Camb.), 27, 70 (1927â28).

  18. Kon, Proc. Nutr. Soc., 3, 217 (1945).

  19. Anonymous, Nutr. Rev., 3, 48 (1945).

  20. Hopkins and Leader, J. Hyg. (Camb.), 44, 149 (1945).

  21. Light, Cracas, Olcott and Frey, J. Nutr., 24, 427 (1942).

  22. Najjar and Holt, J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 123, 683 (1943).

  23. Ellinger, Benesch and Kay, Lancet, (i), 248, 432 (1945).

  24. Ansbacher, Vitamins and Hormones, 2, 215 (1944).

  25. Mansour and Mansour-Bek, Biol. Rev., 9, 363(1934).

  26. Rosenkrantz, Z. Morph. u. Okol. Tiere, 36, (2), 279 (1939).

  27. Schneider, Z. Morph. u. Okol. Tiere, 36, (4), 595 (1940).

  28. Brecher and Wigglesworth, Parasit., 35, (4), 220 (1944).

  29. Mahdihassan, Nature, 158, 58 (1946).

  30. Blewett and Fraenkel, Proc. Roy. Soc., B, 132, 212 (1944).

  31. Smith and Baker, Biochem. J., 38, 496 (1944). Baker, Ann. App. Biol., 30, 230(1943).

  32. Woodman and Stewart, J. Agric. Sci., 22, 527 (1937).

  33. Owen, Smith and Wright, Biochem. J., 37, 44 (1943).

  34. Pearson and Smith, Biochem. J., 37, 142, 148, 153 (1943).

  35. âœDiscussion on Digestion in the Ruminantâ, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 39, 38 (1946).

  36. Owen, Proc. Nutr. Soc., in the press; J. Dairy Res., 15 (1947).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Hannah Dairy Research Institute, Kirkhill, Ayr

    • DR. E. C. OWEN

Authors

  1. Search for DR. E. C. OWEN in:

About this article

Publication history

Issue Date

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/160078a0

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.