Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible influence of acetic acid (administered as vinegar) on the postprandial glucose and insulin responses, and the potential involvement of a modified gastric emptying rate was studied by use of paracetamol as a marker.
Design: The white bread reference meal as well as the corresponding meal supplemented with vinegar had the same content of starch, protein and fat. The meals were served in the morning after an over-night fast and in random order. Capillary blood samples for analysis of glucose, insulin and paracetamol were collected postprandially.
Setting: The study was performed at the Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden.
Subjects: Ten healthy volunteers, seven women and three men, aged 22–51 y, with normal body mass indices were recruited.
Results: The presence of acetic acid, given as vinegar, significantly reduced the postprandial glucose (GI=64) and insulin responses (II=65) to a starchy meal. As judged from lowered paracetamol levels after the test meal with vinegar, the mechanism is probably a delayed gastric emptying rate.
Conclusions: Fermented foods or food products with added organic acids should preferably be included in the diet in order to reduce glycaemia and insulin demand.
Sponsorship: Cerealia Foundation for Research and Development (project no. 232).
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $9.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
About this article
Cite this article
Liljeberg, H., Björck, I. Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 368–371 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600572
- glucose and insulin responses
- gastric emptying rate
- acetic acid
This article is cited by
Glycemic response, satiety, gastric secretions and emptying after bread consumption with water, tea or lemon juice: a randomized crossover intervention using MRI
European Journal of Nutrition (2022)
Lemon juice, but not tea, reduces the glycemic response to bread in healthy volunteers: a randomized crossover trial
European Journal of Nutrition (2021)
Safety and side effects of apple vinegar intake and its effect on metabolic parameters and body weight: a systematic review
European Journal of Nutrition (2020)
The Mediterranean way: why elderly people should eat wholewheat sourdough bread—a little known component of the Mediterranean diet and healthy food for elderly adults
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research (2020)
Food and Bioprocess Technology (2018)