Letter | Published:

A New Criterion of Yielding in Metals

Nature volume 159, pages 741742 (31 May 1947) | Download Citation



SEVERAL theoretical criteria of yielding have been proposed1,2 and tested by comparing the stress values found experimentally just as yielding began under simple stress systems. For example, the ratio of simple shear yield stress to simple tensile yield stress T0/S0 is given variously by older theories as 1, 0.77, 0.50, 0.62, while experimentally for common engineering materials this ratio is found to be 0.56 approximately. A better fit to experiment is the theory credited jointly to Huber, von Mises and Hencky (ref. 1, p. 478), which for the above ratio gives . This theory stated in Hencky's form for the stress system Sii, etc., when i = 1, 2, 3, j = 2, 3, 1, is just as yielding is beginning. If the system of stresses is two-dimensional simple shear together with simple tension, then the Huber criterion gives an ellipse by plotting shear stress as ordinate and simple tension as abscissa. Experimental examination3,4 shows the experimental values to lie approximately on the theoretical ellipse.

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  1. 1.

    , "Strength of Materials", 2, 473–481 (Macmillan, 1941). Note eqn. 314 should read 0.577 and not 0.557.

  2. 2.

    , "Plasticity", 59–69 (McGraw-Hill, 1931).

  3. 3.

    , Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., A, 323 (1932).

  4. 4.

    , Forschungsarbeiten a. d. Gebiete d. Ingineurwesens, No. 303 (VDI-Verlag, Berlin, 1928).

  5. 5.

    , Phil. Mag., vii, 36, 443 (1945).

  6. 6.

    , awaiting publication.

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  1. Department of Civil Engineering, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, S.W.7. March 8.

    • K. H. SWAINGER


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