THE Karewa series are deposits laid down in an ancient lake in Kashmir and now exposed on hillsides and in the valley at elevations of 5,500-10,600 ft. The flora is rich, including many dicotyledons (mostly identified as hill trees and shrubs), monocotyledons (mostly lowland aquatics), gymnosperms and abundant algae. The aquatics are of special interest because they are not known to occupy elevations greater than 5,200 ft. at the present time in the Himalayas. This suggests that the lake deposits may have been afterwards raised at least 5,000 ft.-a conclusion in accordance with recent geological views. The flora from different localities is distinctly diverse. That from Liddarmarg (altitude 10,600 ft.) is tropical in its trees, including such genera as Ficus, Quercus, Litsœa, etc. Such genera occur at present at a low altitude of 3,000-6,000 ft. in the Himalayas.
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