Letter | Published:

Effect of Hydrogen Ion Concentration on Cation Exchange in Clay Salts

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Abstract

THE lyotrope series is usually observed in the exchange of cations from clays and permutites1,2. Deviations from this series have also been reported3,4. These have been attributed to the structural peculiarities of the clays2, 3 and variations in the hydration of cations4. Differences in the relative effects of Ba++ and Ca++ ions in the interaction of hydrogen clays with neutral salts and bases have been observed5, 6, 7, depending on the prevailing pH of the system. Symmetry values3 of a number of clay salts against various electrolytes (chlorides) have been measured with and without adjustment of the pH of the system at a constant value by the addition of the requisite amount of hydrochloric acid. When a constant pH is not maintained, deviations from the normal lyotrope series often occur, especially in clays containing montmorillonite as judged from X-ray analysis. The deviations disappear when the symmetry values measured at a constant pH ranging from 6·0 to 7·0 are compared. At a constant pH between 3·0 and 5·0, all the cations examined give the same symmetry value, and the cation effect as envisaged in the lyotrope series altogether disappears.

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References

  1. 1

    Jenny, Koll. Beih., 23, 429 (1926).

  2. 2

    Wiegner, Trans. 3rd. Internat. Cong. Soil Sci., 3, 109 (1935).

  3. 3

    Jenny, J. Phys. Chem., 36, 2217 (1932).

  4. 4

    Schachtschabel, Koll. Beih., 51. 199 (1940).

  5. 5

    Mukherjee, Mitra and Mukherjee, S., Trans. Nat. Inst. Sci. India, 1, No. 10, 227 (1937).

  6. 6

    Mukherjee, S. K., and Ganguli, Ind. J. Agric. Sci., in the press.

  7. 7

    Mitra, Mukherjee, S. K., and Bagchi, Ind. J. Agric. Sci., 10, Part 2, 303 (1940).

  8. 8

    Unpublished work of Mr. S. N. Bagchi.

  9. 9

    Mukherjee and Chatterjee, J. Indian Chem. Soc., 12, 105 (1942).

  10. 10

    Unpublished work of Dr. B. Chatterjee.

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