AN article by G. Q. Lumsden (Bell Lab. Rec., 22, No. 14; October 1944) discusses new woods for cross-arms and their preservation. Since the turn of the century, the open-wire lines of the Bell System (U.S.A.) have been carried mostly on Douglas fir and southern pine cross-arms. War emergency demands for these timbers have made it necessary, however, to seek substitutes, and the woods most readily available were red and jack pine from the Lake States and the inland type of Douglas fir from the north-west.