Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The Ishihara Test for Colour Blindness


Vernon and Straker1 claim that 5·37–9·45 per cent of colour blind men were found in Great Britain, according to district, averaging 7·49 per cent. This is about twice the accepted figure. They suggest the difference is due to use of "a modified form" of the Stilling and Ishihara Tests, which "picks out many of the colour-weak, or anomalous trichromats, as well as the strictly colour-blind".

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout


  1. NATURE, 152, 690 (1944).

  2. NATURE, 153, 409 (1944).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  3. Edridge Green, F. W., "The Physiology of Vision", chapter 24.

  4. Houstoun, R. A., "Vision and Colour Vision", 194–199.

  5. Cf. Thomas, G. J., Amer. J. Psych., 56, 583.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

PICKFORD, R. The Ishihara Test for Colour Blindness. Nature 153, 656–657 (1944).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing