ACCORDING to the report of the Director of Medical and Sanitary Services, Ceylon, in 1940, malaria, as in previous years, was the most prevalent disease in the island, about 97,000 cases having been treated in hospitals and 2,994,000 in dispensaries. The chief outbreak occurred in the south-west early in May and continued until the middle of July. In the northwestern province an epidemic of dysentery, due to the Shiga bacillus, also started in May. During the year the leprosy survey which was begun in 1933 was completed. The total number of patients was 2,771 -2,032 males and 739 females-of whom more than a thousand were segregated in two leper asylums. The whole population of Ceylon is estimated at 5,951,000, The total births in 1940 numbered 212,982, a rate of 35-8 per 1,000 ; deaths amounted to 122,738, a rate of 20-6. The infant mortality-rate was 149 per 1,000 and the maternal rate 16-1.