PROF. P. M. ROXBY'S admirable pamphlet on “China”(Oxford Pamphlets on World Affairs, No. 54. London: Oxford University Press. 4d. net) provides an excellent introduction, for those who have only now come to realize the importance of China in the War, to an understanding of the place of China in the struggle of the United Nations. Within the compass of thirty pages, he gives a succinct description of the land of China, the impact thereon of the West, and of the Nationalist movement and the progress of reconstruction up to 1931. The latter part of the pamphlet deals with the Japanese seizure of Manchuria and the consequences of the Sino-Japanese war which broke out in 1937. With Sir John Pratt's “Japan and the Modern World”(Oxford Pamphlets on World Affairs, No. 55. 4: d. net) a penetrating analysis is afforded of the causes which have merged the European and the Far Eastern conflicts into a single war. Sir John Pratt, moreover, in tracing the course of Japanese foreign policy and particularly of Japanese relations with Great Britain, goes to those fundamental differences in national temper and outlook which explain the present hostility of Japan and Great Britain, and indeed raise the question as to the desirability from the start of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902.