THE fifth annual report of the Director of the Meteorological Service of the Government of Iraq, which covers the year ending March 31, 1941, describes the work of this Service during a period when it was much affected by the entry of Italy into the War on June 10, 1940. The amount of civil aviation in Iraq was greatly reduced, but the companies still carrying on were supplied with reports and forecasts on the usual lines. The greatest difficulties arising from the entry of Italy into the War were in connexion with supplies of equipment from Great Britain. The supply of balloons required for making observations of the upper winds became erratic, and larger reserves had to be built up, which gave rise to problems of storage in a climate very unfavourable for rubber storage. The experiment was made of getting balloons made in Australia and the United States. In both cases results were satisfactory apart from the extra expense.