THE last census of Brazil showed that on September 1, 1940, Rio de Janeiro had 1,781,567 inhabitants (J. Amer. Med. Assoc, Feb. 14). The decline of births was illustrated by the fact that whereas in the period 1921-1930 the births numbered 344,921, in the period 1931-1940 only 321,976 births were registered, although there was an increase in the population. In the first period there were 248,964 deaths, and in the second period 274,233. This increase, however, was not in proportion to the growth of the population. In the same periods the marriages numbered 80,545 and 106,112 respectively, though there was a decrease in the birth-rate. The population of the capitals of the Brazilian States was 5,661,091 in 1940, or 13-6 per cent of the population of the whole country. In 1920 the figure was only 8 -6 per cent of the whole nation.