Science is a collective human enterprise. It belongs to no country or race. Yet at different periods it has owed its chief advance to the activities of men first in one part of the world and then in another. Modern science originated in Italy in the sixteenth century, spread to the Low Countries, and thence to England and France. It was in England that it first achieved effective organization in the Royal Society. The nineteenth century saw it established in every industrial country of the world, notably in Germany and the United States. In each of these countries a characteristic contribution was made both to the extent of new knowledge and to the new means of gaining it. In this century, the contribution that the new Union of Socialist Soviet Republics has made to science is as significant as any of the major contributions of other origins in the past.