BY using apparatus similar in principle to that of an electrocardiogram, M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, working at the Lighting Research Laboratory of the General Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio, have investigated the action of the eyes in reading*. One electrode is placed in the centre of the forehead, and the other on one of the temples. The feeble electric currents produced by the eye muscles are amplified more than a million times, and recorded photographically by an oscillograph. The currents obtained are so weak, and the instrument is so sensitive that electrical disturbances are likely to arise from other biological processes taking place in the patient's body, as well as from electro–magnetic waves induced in his body by electrical apparatus such as lamps.

    Access options

    Rent or Buy article

    Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


    All prices are NET prices.


    1. 1

      School and Society, 53, No. 1376 (1941).

    Download references

    Rights and permissions

    Reprints and Permissions

    About this article

    Cite this article

    ACTION OF THE EYES IN READING. Nature 148, 321 (1941).

    Download citation


    By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.