IN his inaugural thesis (Thèse de Paris, No. 657; 1939) Dr. Félix Randriamanana states that a study of the population of Madagascar since the beginning of the century shows an annual rise, which was very pronounced during the first twelve years but underwent a decline during each of the subsequent twelve years. In 1936 the population was 3,777,951 as compared with 2,244,876 in 1900. In 1904 and 1908 various devastating epidemics, especially smallpox, measles, malaria and influenza, had a considerable effect upon the population. The annual birth-rate has increased from 64,847 in 1906 to 88,351 in 1936; but the increase is probably more apparent than real owing to the notification of births being carried out more completely then previously.