TH. HUXLEY in his famous Romanes Lecture startled the University of Oxford by saying, or seeming to say, that the cosmic process as represented by the struggle for existence "works not for righteousness but against it". Apparently his contention was that the use of tooth and claw was to be contrasted with the more civilized methods of maintaining the race in being. Huxley, however, did not define the precise function to be attributed to the higher morality as a means of survival. It remains, therefore, for the anthropologist to inquire what actual evidence there is for the view that what is salvation for the brute, or even for the savage, spells damnation for a reasonable being knowing good from evil.