BEFORE a satisfactory method of prophylactic immunization had been devised, yellow fever was by no means uncommon among laboratory workers, some 37 cases having been reported. In every instance, those who contracted the disease had been in close contact with material containing either the virulent pantropic or the neurotropic strains of yellow fever virus, and the portal of entry was the skin, conjunctiva or nasopharyngeal mucosa.
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FINDLAY, G., MACCALLUM, F. Spontaneous Yellow Fever in Rhesus Monkeys in the Absence of Mosquitoes. Nature 144, 332 (1939). https://doi.org/10.1038/144332a0