Co-operative Activation

Abstract

A CONSIDERABLE number of examples of chemical reactions in organized condensed systems have been observed to occur with activation energies greater than those normally associated with the temperature range at which the reactions occur. These reactions are: (1) the denaturation of proteins, where activation energies of 50–150 k.cal. have been reported1, (2) CaCO3.6H2O CaCO3 + 6H2O2, (3) K2SO4 Cr2(SO4)324H2O K2SO4Cr2(SO4)312H2O + 12H2O3 and (4) the production of detonation nuclei in solid explosives4. On the other hand, in many solid reactions there is no marked deviation from the Polanyi-Wigner equation, the rate in molecules per sq. cm. being given by v.e.-E/RT N. Thus there is no very large deviation in the case of Ag2CO3) Ag2O + CO25 or CuSO45H2O CuSO43H2O + 2H2O6, and in exothermic solid reactions; the following figures bear out the same point.

References

  1. 1

    These reactions have been summarized by Eyring and Stearn (Chem. Rev., 24, 253 (1939).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Topley and Hume, Proc Roy. Soc., A, 136, 413 (1931).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Cooper, J. A. (unpublished).

  4. 4

    Gamer, W. E., Trans. Farad. Soc., 34, 933 (1938).

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Spencer and Topley, Trans. Farad. Soc., 27, 94 (1931).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Topley, Proc. Roy. Soc., A, 136, 413 (1932).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Garner and Gomm, J. Chem. Soc., 2123 (1931).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Garner and Marke, J. Chem. Soc., 657 (1936).

  9. 9

    Meldrum, F. R. (unpublished).

  10. 10

    Wischin, A. (unpublished).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

GARNER, W. Co-operative Activation. Nature 144, 287 (1939). https://doi.org/10.1038/144287a0

Download citation

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.