THE properties of liquid helium can best be considered under two headings: (a) properties in thermal equilibrium, (b) transport effects. The equilibrium properties, which have been the subject of many careful investigations in Leyden and elsewhere, may be regarded as fairly well established. These include the determination of the specific heat for different temperatures, the variation of density with temperature at different constant pressures, and the relation of the saturated vapour pressure to the absolute temperature scale. The investigations of transport effects such as the flow of the liquid through tubes, heat conductivity and associated effects are still in an early stage of development, and no clear understanding of these phenomena has yet been reached. The subject was discussed at a meeting following the International Refrigeration Congress in July and also during the Cambridge meeting of the British Association. In this article we shall confine our attention largely to the interesting newly discovered transport effects, and give an account of recent experiments the results of which at present seem to find general acceptance.
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Allen, J., Jones, H. Liquid Helium. Nature 143, 227–230 (1939). https://doi.org/10.1038/143227a0
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