MR. PROSPER BOVIEN contributes an important paper (written in English) on the above subject, in the Videna Kabelige Ueddelelseer fra Dansk naturhistorisk Forening, 101, 1937, which has only recently come to hand. His investigations relate to the family Anguillulidse, which may become associated with insects in various ways. From a survey of the literature, and his own investigations, the author concludes that these nematodes and insects may be associated in four different ways. (1) Symbiotic association, such species living in the frass or tunnels of wood-inhabiting beetles. Other species live in the nests of ants or termites. The prevalence of a special larval stage (“Dauerlarve” of Fuchs) has been ascertained in some instances. These larvoe may be carried externally, for example, under the elytra of beetles, loosely adhering or protected by a ‘cocoon’. In some cases they may invade the gut, pharyngeal glands or the hsemoccel of the host. (2) Species found in dung and decaying vegetation which may pass through larval stages carried by insects loosely attached to the exoskeleton or firmly adhering as ‘cysts’. Others have endoparasitic larvae affecting insects. (3) There are also species which occur as actual parasites in the body-cavity of insects where reproduction takes place. (4) Species which combine parasitic and saprozoic types of behaviour.
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Association between Nematodes and Insects. Nature 141, 758 (1938). https://doi.org/10.1038/141758b0